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Plos One : Mnanog Possesses Dorsal Mesoderm-inducing Ability by Mo...

By: Michael Klymkowsky

Description : These results suggested that mNanog expression induces dorsal mesoderm by regulating both Activin/nodal signaling and BMP signaling in Xenopus. This finding highlights the possibly novel function for mNanog in stimulating the endogenous gene network in Xenopus mesoderm formation

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Plos One : Downregulation of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Promotes Col10A...

By: Dmitry I. Nurminsky

Description : Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX is a transmembrane isozyme of CAs that catalyzes reversible hydration of CO2. While it is known that CA IX is distributed in human embryonic chondrocytes, its role in chondrocyte differentiation has not been reported. In the present study, we found that Car9 mRNA and CA IX were expressed in proliferating but not hypertrophic chondrocytes. Next, we examined the role of CA IX in the expression of marker genes of chondrocyte differen...

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Plos One : Assessing Global Marine Biodiversity Status Within a Co...

By: Guichard Frédéric

Description : People value the existence of a variety of marine species and habitats, many of which are negatively impacted by human activities. The Convention on Biological Diversity and other international and national policy agreements have set broad goals for reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. However, efforts to conserve biodiversity cannot be effective without comprehensive metrics both to assess progress towards meeting conservation goals and to account for m...

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Plos One : Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase-1 Functions Regula...

By: Jörg Hermann Fritz

Description : Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase-1 (ERAP1) is a multifunctional, ubiquitously expressed enzyme whose peptidetrimming role during antigen processing for presentation by MHC I molecules is well established, however, a role for ERAP1 in modulating global innate immune responses has not been described to date. Here we demonstrate that, relative to wild type mice, mice lacking ERAP1 exhibit exaggerated innate immune responses early during pathogen recognitio...

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Plos One : Tlr2, Tlr4 and the Myd88 Signaling Are Crucial for the ...

By: Yolande Richard

Description : This study was undertaken to gain better insights into the role of TLRs and MyD88 in the development and differentiation of memory B cells, especially of ASC, during the Th2 polarized memory response induced by Natterins. Our in vivo findings demonstrated that the anaphylactic IgG1 production is dependent on TLR2 and MyD88 signaling, and that TLR4 acts as adjuvant accelerating the synthesis of high affinity-IgE. Also, TLR4 (MyD88-independent) modulated the ...

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Plos One : Non-thermal Radio Frequency and Static Magnetic Fields ...

By: Robert Lafrenie

Description : The growing body of clinical and experimental data regarding electromagnetic field (EMF) bioeffects and their therapeutic applications has contributed to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action. This study reports that two EMF modalities currently in clinical use, a pulse-modulated radiofrequency (PRF) signal, and a static magnetic field (SMF), applied independently, increased the rate of deoxygenation of human hemoglobin (Hb) in a cel...

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Plos One : Exploring the Dynamic Core Microbiome of Plaque Microbi...

By: Ramy K. Aziz

Description : Radiotherapy is the primary treatment modality used for patients with head-and-neck cancers, but inevitably causes microorganism-related oral complications. This study aims to explore the dynamic core microbiome of oral microbiota in supragingival plaque during the course of head-and-neck radiotherapy. Eight subjects aged 26 to 70 were recruited. Dental plaque samples were collected (over seven sampling time points for each patient) before and during radiot...

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Plos One : Brainstem Involvement as a Cause of Central Sleep Apnea...

By: Christoph Kleinschnitz

Description : Subtle microstructural changes in the brainstem might be a neuroanatomical correlate of CSA-CSR in patients at risk of WML. DTI is more sensitive and specific than conventional structural MRI and other advanced MR analyses tools in demonstrating these abnormalities.

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Plos One : an Ornithomimid Dinosauria Bonebed from the Late Cretac...

By: J. Richard Butler

Description : Bonebeds can provide a wealth of anatomical, taphonomic, and ontogenetic information about the specimens preserved within them, and can provide evidence for inferred behavior. The material described here represents the first known bonebed of ornithomimids in North America, and the fourth record of an ornithomimosaur bonebed in the world. Partial skeletons representing three individuals are preserved in this assemblage, each comprising primarily portions of ...

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Plos One : Local and Regional Processes in Community Assembly, Vol...

By: Ethan P. White

Description : Controversy on whether local (deterministic) or regional (stochastic) factors control the structure of communities persists after decades of research. The main reason for why it has not been resolved may lie in the nature of evidence which largely comes from realized natural communities. In such communities assembly history leaves a mark that may support either set of factors. To avoid the confounding effects of assembly history we controlled for these effe...

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Plos One : Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Sonic Hedgehog-recept...

By: Salsbury Freddie

Description : The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is necessary for a variety of development and differentiation during embryogenesis as well as maintenance and renascence of diverse adult tissues. However, an abnormal activation of the signaling pathway is related to various cancers. In this pathway, the Shh signaling transduction is facilitated by binding of Shh to its receptor protein, Ptch. In this study, we modeled the 3D structure of functionally important ke...

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Plos One : Antibiotic Consumption and Healthcare-associated Infect...

By: Qijing Zhang

Description : The trend in overall HAIs decreased and trends in GNB HAIs and MDR-GNB HAIs remained stable over time suggesting that the infection control practice was effective during the study period, and the escalating HAIs due to CRAcinetobacter spp. were driven by consumptions of broad-spectrum antibiotics other than piperacillin/tazobactam. Our data underscore the importance of antibiotic stewardship in the improvement of the trend of HAIs caused by Acinetobacter spp..

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Plos One : Measuring the Intangibles ; a Metrics for the Economic ...

By: Alain Barrat

Description : We investigate a recent methodology we have proposed to extract valuable information on the competitiveness of countries and complexity of products from trade data. Standard economic theories predict a high level of specialization of countries in specific industrial sectors. However, a direct analysis of the official databases of exported products by all countries shows that the actual situation is very different. Countries commonly considered as developed ...

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Plos One : Myelin-derived Lipids Modulate MacRophage Activity by L...

By: Patricia T. Bozza

Description : Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which macrophages and microglia play a central role. Foamy macrophages and microglia, containing degenerated myelin, are abundantly found in active multiple sclerosis lesions. Recent studies have described an altered macrophage phenotype after myelin internalization. However, it is unclear by which mechanisms myelin affects the phenotype of macrophages and ...

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Plos One : Moderate Heat Challenge Increased Yolk Steroid Hormones...

By: Nei Moreira

Description : Our findings suggest that moderate heat challenge triggers maternal effects and modulate the developmental trajectory of offspring in a way that may be adaptive. This suggests that the impact of heat challenges on captive or wild populations might have a cross-generation effect.

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Plos One : Efficient Multiple Object Tracking Using Mutually Repul...

By: Eric Cascales

Description : Studies of social and group behavior in interacting organisms require high-throughput analysis of the motion of a large number of individual subjects. Computer vision techniques offer solutions to specific tracking problems, and allow automated and efficient tracking with minimal human intervention. In this work, we adopt the open active contour model to track the trajectories of moving objects at high density. We add repulsive interactions between open con...

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Plos One : the Axonal Guidance Cue Semaphorin 3C Contributes to Al...

By: Rory Edward Morty

Description : Lung diseases characterized by alveolar damage such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants and emphysema lack efficient treatments. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to normal and impaired alveolar growth and repair may identify new therapeutic targets for these lung diseases. Axonal guidance cues are molecules that guide the outgrowth of axons. Amongst these axonal guidance cues, members of the Semaphorin family, in particular Sem...

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Plos One : Pichia Pastoris-expressed Dengue 2 Envelope Forms Virus...

By: Ernesto T. A. Marques

Description : Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease with a global prevalence. It is caused by four closely-related dengue viruses (DENVs 1–4). A dengue vaccine that can protect against all four viruses is an unmet public health need. Live attenuated vaccine development efforts have encountered unexpected interactions between the vaccine viruses, raising safety concerns. This has emphasized the need to explore non-replicating dengue vaccine options. Virus-like particle...

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Plos One : B-blockers and All-cause Mortality in Adults with Episo...

By: Antony Bayer

Description : Cardiovascular comorbidities are common and increase the risk of mortality in adults with episodes of acute bronchitis. Cardioselective b-blockers, but also calcium channel blockers and statins may reduce mortality, possibly as a result of cardiovascular protective properties.

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Plos One : Prenatal Stress Inhibits Hippocampal Neurogenesis but S...

By: Hiroaki Matsunami

Description : The dentate gyrus (DG) and the olfactory bulb (OB) are two regions of the adult brain in which new neurons are integrated daily in the existing networks. It is clearly established that these newborn neurons are implicated in specific functions sustained by these regions and that different factors can influence neurogenesis in both structures. Among these, life events, particularly occurring during early life, were shown to profoundly affect adult hippocampa...

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