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Plos One : Atm Deficiency Results in Accumulation of Dnatopoisomer...

By: Michal Hetman

Description : Accumulation of peptide-linked DNA breaks contributes to neurodegeration in humans. This is typified by defects in tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) and human hereditary ataxia. TDP1 primarily operates at single-strand breaks (SSBs) created by oxidative stress or by collision of transcription machinery with topoisomerase I intermediates (Top1-CCs). Cellular and cell-free studies have shown that Top1 at stalled Top1-CCs is first degraded to a small pept...

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Plos One : Differential Protective Effects of Exenatide, an Agonis...

By: Christian Holscher

Description : Exenatide and piragliatin exert distinct effects on beta cell survival and thus on type 2 diabetes. This study which confirmed our hypothesis is also the first to observe specific modulation of 14-3-3 isoform in stress-induced beta cell death associated with progressive deterioration of type 2 diabetes.

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Plos One : Immuno-isolation of Pancreatic Islet Allografts Using P...

By: Paolo Fiorina

Description : Two major hurdles need to be surmounted for cell therapy for diabetes : (i) allo-immune rejection of grafted pancreatic islets, or stem/precursor cell-derived insulin-secreting cells: and (ii) continuing auto-immunity against the diabetogenic endogenous target antigen. Nanotherapeutics offer a novel approach to overcome these problems and here we ask if creation of ‘‘stealth’’ islets encapsulated within a thin cage of pegylated material of 100–200 nanometer...

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Plos One : Ro 90-7501 Enhances Tlr3 and Rlr Agonist Induced Antivi...

By: Dong-yan Jin

Description : Recognition of virus infection by innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including membrane-associated toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytoplasmic RIG-I-like receptors (RLR), activates cascades of signal transduction pathways leading to production of type I interferons (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines that orchestrate the elimination of the viruses. Although it has been demonstrated that PRR-mediated innate immunity plays an essential role in defendi...

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Plos One : Patterns and Possible Roles of Line-1 Methylation Chang...

By: Brock C. Christensen

Description : Tobacco smoking and reduced methylation of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) are crucial in oral carcinogenesis. 5’UTR of human LINE-1 sequence contains several CpG dinucleotides which are methylated in various proportions (0–100%). Methylation levels of many LINE-1s in cancer were reduced, hypomethylated. The hypomethylation of each LINE-1 locus can promote instability of genome and repress expression of a gene located on that same chromosome. This stud...

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Plos One : Phosphorylated C, Volume 8

By: Bandana Chatterjee

Description : The promoter of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene CFTR is tightly controlled by regulators including CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs). We previously reported that the transcription factors YY1 and USF2 affect CFTR expression. We can now demonstrate that C/EBPb, a member of the CCAAT family, binds to the CFTR promoter and contributes to its transcriptional activity. Our data reveal that C/EBPb cooperates with USF2 and acts ...

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Plos One : Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-associated Uveitis ; a Na...

By: Proost Paul

Description : The incidence of JIA is low but that of JIA-associated uveitis is increasing. Higher percentage of males in patients with ERA and the strong association between ERA and uveitis are unique for children with JIA in Taiwan. Uveitis diagnosed before arthritis is an important risk factor for complications. Continuous ophthalmologic follow-up is needed for children with JIA or uveitis of unknown etiology

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Plos One : Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Pi...

By: Mark Wainberg

Description : By using a fragment-assembly strategy and bioisosteric-replacement principle, a series of novel piperazine derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their cellular target-effector fusion activities and in vitro antiviral activities against HIV-1. Preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) of target compounds were concluded in this study, and five compounds were found to exhibited medium to potent CCR5 fusion activities with IC50 val...

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Plos One : an Antimitotic and Antivascular Agent Bpr0L075 Overcome...

By: Qiang Wang

Description : Paclitaxel plays a major role in the treatment of ovarian cancer: however, resistance to paclitaxel is frequently observed. Thus, new therapy that can overcome paclitaxel resistance will be of significant clinical importance. We evaluated antiproliferative effects of an antimitotic and antivascular agent BPR0L075 in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells. BPR0L075 displays potent and broad-spectrum cytotoxicity at low nanomolar concentrations (IC50 = 2–7...

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Plos One : Early Life Stress Differentially Modulates Distinct For...

By: Thomas Burne

Description : Hippocampal volume was affected by early life stress but recovered in adulthood which corresponded to normal adult neurogenesis. Synaptic plasticity, however, exhibited a delayed impairment. The modulation of synaptic plasticity by early life stress might contribute to affective dysfunction in adulthood

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Plos One : Ongoing Speciation in the Tibetan Plateau Gymnocypris S...

By: Thomas Mailund

Description : Local adaptation towards divergent ecological conditions often results in genetic differentiation and adaptive phenotypic divergence. To illuminate the ecological distinctiveness of the schizothoracine fish, we studied a Gymnocypris species complex consisting of three morphs distributed across four bodies of water (the Yellow River, Lake Qinghai, the Ganzi River and Lake Keluke) in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. We used a combination of mitochondrial (16S r...

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Plos One : Role of the N-terminal Seven Residues of Surfactant Pro...

By: Michael Massiah

Description : Breathing is enabled by lung surfactant, a mixture of proteins and lipids that forms a surface-active layer and reduces surface tension at the air-water interface in lungs. Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential component of lung surfactant. In this study we probe the mechanism underlying the important functional contributions made by the N-terminal 7 residues of SP-B, a region sometimes called the ‘‘insertion sequence’’. These studies employed a const...

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Plos One : Association Between Uric Acid Levels and Obstructive Sl...

By: Sudhiranjan Gupta

Description : A strong association was found between uric acid levels and OSAS in a representative sample of the population of Sao Paulo. Although they do not qualify for a biomarker alone, uric acid levels may be involved in OSAS severity and should be considered in sleep apnea management in the future.

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Plos One : Association Between Virulence and Triazole Tolerance in...

By: Sung-hwan

Description : Host resistance and synthetic antimicrobials such as fungicides are two of the main approaches used to control plant diseases in conventional agriculture. Although pathogens often evolve to overcome host resistance and antimicrobials, the majority of reports have involved qualitative host – pathogen interactions or antimicrobials targeting a single pathogen protein or metabolic pathway. Studies that consider jointly the evolution of virulence, defined as th...

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Plos One : Multivariate Phenotypic Divergence Due to the Fixation ...

By: William J. Etges

Description : The potential for evolutionary change is limited by the availability of genetic variation. Mutations are the ultimate source of new alleles, yet there have been few experimental investigations of the role of novel mutations in multivariate phenotypic evolution. Here, we evaluated the degree of multivariate phenotypic divergence observed in a long-term evolution experiment whereby replicate lineages of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans were derived...

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Plos One : Disturbed Subjective Sleep in Chinese Females with Type...

By: Ramon Andrade De Mello

Description : The results suggest that we found poor sleep quality in female Chinese type 2 diabetes patients with insulin treatment and these findings may contribute to sleep disorder control in female type 2 diabetes.

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Plos One : a Two-component System Xyds, Volume 7

By: Vladimir N. Uversky

Description : The composition of the cellulosomes (multi enzymatic complexes involved in the degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides) produced by Clostridium cellulolyticum differs according to the growth substrate. In particular, the expression of a cluster of 14 hemicellulase-encoding genes (called xyl-doc) seems to be induced by the presence of straw and not of cellulose. Genes encoding a putative two-component regulation system (XydS/R) were found upstream of ...

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Plos One : Cost-minimization Analysis Favours Intravenous Ferric C...

By: Maarten Postma

Description : In this pharmacoeconomic analysis, FCM infusion reduced the costs of iron infusion at a gastrointestinal daycare unit.

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Plos One : New Metrics for Comparison of Taxonomies Reveal Strikin...

By: Diego Fontaneto

Description : Delimiting and describing species is fundamental to numerous biological disciplines such as evolution, macroecology, and conservation. Delimiting species as independent evolutionary lineages may and often does yield different outcomes depending on the species criteria applied, but methods should be chosen that minimize the inference of objectively erroneous species limits. Several protocols exploit single-gene or multi-gene coalescence statistics, assignmen...

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Plos One : Long-term Effects of Early Overnutrition in the Heart o...

By: Michael Bader

Description : To analyze the long-term effects of early overfeeding on the heart and coronary circulation, the effect of ischemiareperfusion (I/R) and the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was studied in isolated hearts from control and overfed rats during lactation. On the day of birth litters were adjusted to twelve pups per mother (controls) or to three pups per mother (overfed). At 5 months of age, the rats from reduced litters showed higher body weight and ...

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