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Plos One : Detection of Bocavirus in Children Suffering from Acute...

By: Jianming Qiu

Description : Human bocavirus (HBoV) was recently discovered in children with respiratory distress and/or diarrhea. To our knowledge, no previous study has reported the existence of bocavirus in Saudi Arabia. Swabs samples from 80 children with respiratory tract infections were examined for the presence of HBoV. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used as a sensitive method to detect the HBoV. Direct gene sequencing was used to determine the genotype of the detected ...

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Plos One : Repressive Effect of Primary Virus Replication on Super...

By: Zandrea Ambrose

Description : A possible mechanism of susceptibility to superinfection with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-1157ipd3N4 was explored in twelve SHIVSF162P3-infected Chinese rhesus macaques. Based on the kinetics of viral replication for the second infecting virus following SHIV-1157ipd3N4 inoculation, the monkeys were divided into two groups : those relatively resistant to superinfection (SIR) and those relatively sensitive to superinfection (SIS). We found that...

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Plos One : Fgt-1 is a Mammalian Glut2-like Facilitative Glucose Tr...

By: Todd Lamitina

Description : Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is an attractive animal model for biological and biomedical research because it permits relatively easy genetic dissection of cellular pathways, including insulin/IGF-like signaling (IIS), that are conserved in mammalian cells. To explore C. elegans as a model system to study the regulation of the facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT), we have characterized the GLUT gene homologues in C. elegans : fgt-1, R09B5.11, C35A1...

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Plos One : B-blockers and All-cause Mortality in Adults with Episo...

By: Antony Bayer

Description : Cardiovascular comorbidities are common and increase the risk of mortality in adults with episodes of acute bronchitis. Cardioselective b-blockers, but also calcium channel blockers and statins may reduce mortality, possibly as a result of cardiovascular protective properties.

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Plos One : Role of Human Sec63 in Modulating the Steady-state Leve...

By: F. Gisou Van Der Goot

Description : The Sec61 translocon of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane forms an aqueous pore, allowing polypeptides to be transferred across or integrated into membranes. Protein translocation into the ER can occur co- and posttranslationally. In yeast, posttranslational translocation involves the heptameric translocase complex including its Sec62p and Sec63p subunits. The mammalian ER membrane contains orthologs of yeast Sec62p and Sec63p, but their function is p...

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Plos One : Site Fidelity in Space Use by Spider Monkeys Ateles Geo...

By: Sharon Gursky-doyen

Description : Animal home ranges may vary little in their size and location in the short term but nevertheless show more variability in the long term. We evaluated the degree of site fidelity of two groups of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) over a 10- and 13-year period, respectively, in the northeastern Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. We used the Local Convex Hull method to estimate yearly home ranges and core areas (defined as the 60% probability contour) for the two grou...

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Plos One : Vaccination with L. Infantum Chagasi Nucleosomal Histon...

By: Dario S. Zamboni

Description : The data presented here demonstrate the potential use of L. infantum chagasi nucleosomal histones as targets for the development of vaccines against infection with L. braziliensis, as shown by the significant inhibition of disease development following a live challenge.

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Plos One : Immobilization of Pseudorabies Virus in Porcine Trachea...

By: Bruce W. Banfield

Description : Pseudorabies virus (PRV) initially replicates in the porcine upper respiratory tract. It easily invades the mucosae and submucosae for subsequent spread throughout the body via blood vessels and nervous system. In this context, PRV developed ingenious processes to overcome different barriers such as epithelial cells and the basement membrane. Another important but often overlooked barrier is the substantial mucus layer which coats the mucosae. However, litt...

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Plos One : High-resolution Analysis and Functional Mapping of Clea...

By: Matthew Bogyo

Description : The assignment of these substrates to cellular pathways suggests an important role of furin in development, including axonal guidance, cardiogenesis, and maintenance of stem cell pluripotency. The novel approach proposed in this study can be readily applied to other proteinases.

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Plos One : Evaluation of a Continuous Indicator for Syndromic Surv...

By: Yung-fu Chang

Description : Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds...

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Plos One : Association Between Grn Rs5848 Polymorphism and Parkins...

By: Christian Wider

Description : A single nucleotide polymorphism GRN rs5848 (39UTR+78 C.T) was reported to alter the risk for frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Herein, we investigated the effect of GRN rs5848 on the risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) by genotyping 573 Taiwanese patients with PD and 490 age-matched control subjects. Compared to subjects with CC genotype, those with TT genotype had a 1.58-fold increased risk of PD (95% CI : 1.77,2.34, P = 0.021). PD patients demonstrate a hi...

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Plos One : Structural Mechanism of N-methyl-d-aspartate Receptor T...

By: Andrew Jenkins

Description : N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors belong to a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors that contribute to the signal transmission in the central nervous system. NMDA receptors are heterotetramers that usually consist of two GluN1 and GluN2 monomers. The extracellular ligand-binding domain (LBD) of a monomer is comprised of discontinuous segments that form the functional domains D1 and D2. While the binding of a full agonist glycine to LBD of GluN1 is li...

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Plos One : Loss of the Nuclear Receptor Corepressor Slirp Compromi...

By: Bin He

Description : Nuclear receptors (NRs) and their coregulators play fundamental roles in initiating and directing gene expression influencing mammalian reproduction, development and metabolism. SRA stem Loop Interacting RNA-binding Protein (SLIRP) is a Steroid receptor RNA Activator (SRA) RNA-binding protein that is a potent repressor of NR activity. SLIRP is present in complexes associated with NR target genes in the nucleus: however, it is also abundant in mitochondria w...

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Plos One : Allopatry as a Gordian Knot for Taxonomists ; Patterns ...

By: Anna Tramontano

Description : Many cold adapted species occur in both montane settings and in the subarctic. Their disjunct distributions create taxonomic complexity because there is no standardized method to establish whether their allopatric populations represent single or different species. This study employs DNA barcoding to gain new perspectives on the levels and patterns of sequence divergence among populations of 122 arctic-alpine species of Lepidoptera from the Alps, Fennoscandi...

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Plos One : the Role of Tg2 in Regulating S100A4-mediated Mammary T...

By: Sophia N. Karagiannis

Description : The importance of S100A4, a Ca2+-binding protein, in mediating tumour cell migration, both intracellularly and extracellularly, is well documented. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) a Ca2+-dependent protein crosslinking enzyme, has also been shown to enhance cell migration. Here by using the well characterised non-metastatic rat mammary R37 cells (transfected with empty vector) and highly metastatic KP1 cells (R37 cells transfected with S100A4), we demonstrate ...

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Plos One : Increased Adiposity, Dysregulated Glucose Metabolism an...

By: Massimo Federici

Description : Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased production of Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a protein that modulates inflammation and clearance of glucose adducts. We used Lean and Diet-induced Obese (DIO) WT and Gal-3 KO mice to investigate the role of Gal-3 in modulation of adiposity, glucose metabolism and inflammation. Deficiency of Gal-3 lead to age-dependent development of excess adiposity and systemic inflammation, as indicated by elevated production...

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Plos One : the Genetic Diversity of the Nguni Breed of African Cat...

By: Greger Larson

Description : Domesticated cattle were commonplace in northern Africa by about 7,000 years ago. Archaeological evidence, however, suggests they were not established in southern Africa until much later, no earlier than 2,000 years ago. Genetic reconstructions have started to shed light on the movement of African cattle, but efforts have been frustrated by a lack of data south of Ethiopia and the nature of the mitochondrial haplogroup T1 which is almost fixed across the co...

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Plos One : Tailor-making a Protein A-derived Domain for Efficient ...

By: Paul C. Driscoll

Description : Affinity proteins binding to antibody constant regions have proved to be invaluable tools in biotechnology. Here, protein engineering was used to expand the repertoire of available immunoglobulin binding proteins via improvement of the binding strength between the widely used staphylococcal protein A-derived Z domain and the important immunoglobulin isotype mouse IgG1 (mIgG1). Addressing seven positions in the 58-residue three-helix bundle Z domain by singl...

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Plos One : Spermine and Citrate as Metabolic Biomarkers for Assess...

By: Daniel Monleon

Description : Separating indolent from aggressive prostate cancer is an important clinical challenge for identifying patients eligible for active surveillance, thereby reducing the risk of overtreatment. The purpose of this study was to assess prostate cancer aggressiveness by metabolic profiling of prostatectomy tissue and to identify specific metabolites as biomarkers for aggressiveness. Prostate tissue samples (n = 158, 48 patients) with a high cancer content (mean : ...

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Plos One : Metabolite Profiling of a Diverse Collection of Wheat L...

By: Rajagopal Subramanyam

Description : Genetic differences among major types of wheat are well characterized: however, little is known about how these distinctions affect the small molecule profile of the wheat seed. Ethanol/water (65% v/v) extracts of seed from 45 wheat lines representing 3 genetically distinct classes, tetraploid durum (Triticum turgidum subspecies durum) (DW) and hexaploid hard and soft bread wheat (T. aestivum subspecies aestivum) (BW) were subjected to ultraperformance liqu...

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