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Plos One : the Effects of a Prophylactic Knee Brace and Two Neopre...

By: Alejandro Lucia

Description : Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s) without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.261.5) volunte...

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Plos One : the Cancer Stem Cell Marker Cd133 Interacts with Plakog...

By: Cara Gottardi

Description : The pentaspan membrane glycoprotein CD133 (also known as prominin-1) has been widely used as a marker for both cancer and normal stem cells. However, the function of CD133 has not been elucidated. Here we describe a cancer stem cell line established from clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) and show that CD133 interacts with plakoglobin (also known as c-catenin), a desmosomal linker protein. We further demonstrate that knockdown of CD133 by RNA interfere...

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Plos One : Antioxidant Treatment Promotes Prostate Epithelial Prol...

By: Bharat B. Aggarwal

Description : Discordant results in preclinical and clinical trials have raised questions over the effectiveness of antioxidants in prostate cancer chemoprevention. Results from the large-scale Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) showed that antioxidants failed to prevent, and in some cases promoted, prostate cancer formation in men without a history of the disease. One possible explanation for these alarming results is the notion that the effects of ...

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Plos One : Signature of a Pre-human Population Decline in the Crit...

By: Jan Aerts

Description : The exceptional biodiversity of Reunion Island is threatened by anthropogenic landscape changes that took place during the 350 years of human colonization. During this period the human population size increased dramatically from 250 to 800,000. The arrival of humans together with the development of agriculture, invasive species such as rats and cats, and deforestation has lead to the extinction of more than half of the original vertebrate species of the isl...

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Plos One : Within-host Evolution of Staphylococcus Aureus During A...

By: Ramy K. Aziz

Description : This investigation begins to paint a picture of the within-host evolution of an important bacterial pathogen during its prevailing natural state, asymptomatic carriage. These results also have wider significance as a benchmark for future systematic studies of evolution during invasive S. aureus disease.

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Plos One : a Real-time Brain-machine Interface Combining Motor Tar...

By: Wang Zhan

Description : Real-time brain-machine interfaces (BMI) have focused on either estimating the continuous movement trajectory or target intent. However, natural movement often incorporates both. Additionally, BMIs can be modeled as a feedback control system in which the subject modulates the neural activity to move the prosthetic device towards a desired target while receiving real-time sensory feedback of the state of the movement. We develop a novel real-time BMI using a...

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Plos One : Metabolomics Analysis and Biosynthesis of Rosmarinic Ac...

By: Turgay Unver

Description : This study investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on metabolic profiles and rosmarinic acid (RA) biosynthesis in cell cultures of Agastache rugosa Kuntze. Transcript levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes, i.e., ArPAL, Ar4CL, and ArC4H, maximally increased 4.5-fold, 3.4-fold, and 3.5-fold, respectively, compared with the untreated controls, and the culture contained relatively high amounts of RA after exposure of cells to 50 mM MeJA. RA le...

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Plos One : Interaction of Inflammation and Hyperoxia in a Rat Mode...

By: Ken Arai

Description : Intrauterine infection and inflammation are major reasons for preterm birth. The switch from placenta-mediated to lungmediated oxygen supply during birth is associated with a sudden rise of tissue oxygen tension that amounts to relative hyperoxia in preterm infants. Both infection/inflammation and hyperoxia have been shown to be involved in brain injury of preterm infants. Hypothesizing that they might be additive or synergistic, we investigated the influen...

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Plos One : Phylodynamics and Dispersal of Hrsv Entails Its Permane...

By: Paul J. Planet

Description : Background : Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is one of the major etiologic agents of respiratory tract infections among children worldwide. Methodology/Principal Findings : Here through a comprehensive analysis of the two major HRSV groups A and B (n = 1983) which comprise of several genotypes, we present a complex pattern of population dynamics of HRSV over a time period of 50 years (1956–2006). Circulation pattern of HRSV revealed a series of exp...

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Plos One : Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Pacap Pa...

By: Hubert Vaudry

Description : Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) belongs to the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) family. Its action can be mediated by three different receptor subtypes : PAC1, which has exclusive affinity for PACAP, and VPAC1 and VPAC2 which have equal affinity for PACAP and VIP. We showed that all three receptors are expressed in 3T3-L1 cells throughout their differentiation into adipocytes. We established the activity of these ...

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Plos One : Protein Complex Interactor Analysis and Differential Ac...

By: Tae-young Roh

Description : Histone modifications play an important role in chromatin organization and gene regulation, and their interpretation is referred to as epigenetic control. The methylation levels of several lysine residues in histone tails are tightly controlled, and JmjC domain-containing proteins are one class of broadly expressed enzymes catalyzing methyl group removal. However, several JmjC proteins remain uncharacterized, gaps persist in understanding substrate recognit...

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Plos One : Bcl9 and C9Orf5 Are Associated with Negative Symptoms i...

By: Monika Stoll

Description : Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric condition affecting slightly more than 1% of the population worldwide and it is a multifactorial disorder with a high degree of heritability (80%) based on family and twin studies. Increasing lines of evidence suggest intermediate phenotypes/endophenotypes are more associated with causes of the disease and are less genetically complex than the broader disease spectrum. Negative symptoms in schizophreni...

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Plos One : Characterization and Prevention of the Adsorption of Su...

By: Dominik Hartl

Description : Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is a multifunctional protein present in the lung and in respiratory secretions. In the process of developing new experimental approaches to examine SP-D function, we observed that SP-D adsorbs to polypropylene tubes to a great extent, thereby depleting SP-D from the solution. Although it is well known that proteins adsorb nonspecifically to plastic, this effect is usually diminished by treatments to make the plastic ‘‘low-retenti...

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Plos One : Application of Gurson–tvergaard–needleman Constitutive ...

By: Laurent Kreplak

Description : Based on meso-damage mechanics and finite element analysis, the aim of this paper is to describe the feasibility of the Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) constitutive model in describing the tensile behavior of corroded reinforcing bars. The orthogonal test results showed that different fracture pattern and the related damage evolution process can be simulated by choosing different material parameters of GTN constitutive model. Compared with failure paramete...

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Plos One : Diversity of Eastern North American Ant Communities Alo...

By: Corrie S. Moreau

Description : Studies of species diversity patterns across regional environmental gradients seldom consider the impact of habitat type on within-site (alpha) and between-site (beta) diversity. This study is designed to identify the influence of habitat type across geographic and environmental space, on local patterns of species richness and regional turnover patterns of ant diversity in the northeastern United States. Specifically, I aim to 1) compare local species richn...

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Plos One : Water Stress and Aphid Feeding Differentially Influence...

By: Lam-son Phan Tran

Description : Little is known about how drought stress influences plant secondary metabolite accumulation and how this affects plant defense against different aphids. We therefore cultivated Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) plants under well-watered, drought, and water-logged conditions. Two aphid species were selected for this study : the generalist Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and the crucifer specialist Brevicoryne brassicae (L.). Metabolite concentrations in the phloem sap, whic...

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Plos One : Line Orientation Adaptation ; Local or Global, Volume 8

By: Daniel Osorio

Description : Prolonged exposure to an oriented line shifts the perceived orientation of a subsequently observed line in the opposite direction, a phenomenon known as the tilt aftereffect (TAE). Here we consider whether the TAE for line stimuli is mediated by a mechanism that integrates the local parts of the line into a single global entity prior to the site of adaptation, or the result of the sum of local TAEs acting separately on the parts of the line. To test between...

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Plos One : Severe Childhood Malaria Syndromes Defined by Plasma Pr...

By: Kevin K.A. Tetteh

Description : We report that an accurate definition of the major childhood malaria syndromes can be achieved using plasma proteome-patterns. Our proteomic data can be exploited to understand the pathogenesis of the different childhood severe malaria syndromes.

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Plos One : 24 Month Longitudinal Data in Ambulant Boys with Duchen...

By: Ronald Cohn

Description : These results can be of help at the time of using inclusion criteria for a study in ambulant patients in order to minimize the risk of patients who may lose ambulation within the time of the trial.

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Plos One : Antidepressant Treatment Outcome Depends on the Quality...

By: Kenji Hashimoto

Description : Antidepressants represent the standard treatment for major depression. However, their efficacy is variable and incomplete. A growing number of studies suggest that the environment plays a major role in determining the efficacy of these drugs, specifically of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). A recent hypothesis posits that the increase in serotonin levels induced by SSRI may not affect mood per se, but enhances neural plasticity and, consequen...

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