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Plos One : High Rates of Pneumonia in Children Under Two Years of ...

By: Monica Da Silva Nunes

Description : There was a high incidence of pneumonia in young children in this SE Asian refugee population. Viral infections were important, however CXR and non-specific marker findings suggested that bacteria may be involved in up to a third of cases.

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Plos One : Diversity and Complexity in Chromatin Recognition by Tf...

By: Fatah Kashanchi

Description : GTF2I and GTF2IRD1 encode a family of closely related transcription factors TFII-I and BEN critical in embryonic development. Both genes are deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a complex genetic disorder associated with neurocognitive, craniofacial, dental and skeletal abnormalities. Although genome-wide promoter analysis has revealed the existence of multiple TFII-I binding sites in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), there was no correlation between TFII-I occu...

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Plos One : Dengue Virus Type 3 Adaptive Changes During Epidemics i...

By: Amit Kapoor

Description : Global dengue virus spread in tropical and sub-tropical regions has become a major international public health concern. It is evident that DENV genetic diversity plays a significant role in the immunopathology of the disease and that the identification of polymorphisms associated with adaptive responses is important for vaccine development. The investigation of naturally occurring genomic variants may play an important role in the comprehension of different...

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Plos One : Identification of Functional Snps in Bard1 Gene and in ...

By: Amanda Ewart Toland

Description : Background : The BARD1 gene encodes for the BRCA1-associated RING domain (BARD1) protein. Germ line and somatic mutations in BARD1 are found in sporadic breast, ovarian and uterine cancers. There is a plethora of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which may or may not be involved in the onset of female cancers. Hence, before planning a larger population study, it is advisable to sort out the possible functional SNPs. To accomplish this goal, data availa...

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Plos One : Envelope Determinants of Equine Lentiviral Vaccine Prot...

By: Zhiping Ye

Description : Lentiviral envelope (Env) antigenic variation and associated immune evasion present major obstacles to vaccine development. The concept that Env is a critical determinant for vaccine efficacy is well accepted, however defined correlates of protection associated with Env variation have yet to be determined. We reported an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine study that directly examined the effect of lentiviral Env sequence variation on v...

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Plos One : Chronic Ketamine Administration Modulates Midbrain Dopa...

By: Olivier Jacques Manzoni

Description : Ketamine is an anesthetic and a popular abusive drug. As an anesthetic, effects of ketamine on glutamate and GABA transmission have been well documented but little is known about its long-term effects on the dopamine system. In the present study, the effects of ketamine on dopamine were studied in vitro and in vivo. In pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells and NGF differentiated-PC 12 cells, ketamine decreased the cell viability while increasing dopamine (DA) conc...

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Plos One : the Differential Antiviral Activities of Chicken Interf...

By: Annabel Valledor

Description : Chicken interferon a (ChIFN-a) and ChIFN-b are type I IFNs that are important antiviral cytokines in the innate immune system. In the present study, we identified the virus-induced expression of ChIFN-a and ChIFN-b in chicken fibroblast DF-1 cells and systematically evaluated the antiviral activities of recombinant ChIFN-a and ChIFN-b by cytopathic-effect (CPE) inhibition assays. We found that ChIFN-a exhibited stronger antiviral activity than ChIFN-b in te...

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Plos One : Immunogenic and Invasive Properties of Brucella Meliten...

By: P. Geetha Bansal

Description : Brucella is the etiologic agent of brucellosis, one of the most common and widely distributed zoonotic diseases. Its highly infectious nature, the insidious, systemic, chronic, debilitating aspects of the disease and the lack of an approved vaccine for human use in the United States are features that make Brucella a viable threat to public health. One of the main impediments to vaccine development is identification of suitable antigens. In order to identify...

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Plos One : Pyrosequencing Investigation Into the Bacterial Communi...

By: Michael Watson

Description : The China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) goes through 441 km permafrost soils in northeastern China. The bioremediation in case of oil spills is a major concern. So far, little is known about the indigenous bacteria inhabiting in the permafrost soils along the pipeline. A pilot 454 pyrosequencing analysis on the communities from four selected sites which possess high environment risk along the CRCOP is herein presented. The results reveal an immense bact...

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Plos One : Toll-like Receptor 2 and Toll-like Receptor 4-dependent...

By: Robert Lafrenie

Description : Various natural polysaccharides are capable of activating the immune system and therefore can be employed as biological response modifiers in anti-tumor therapy. We previously found a homogenous polysaccharide from the mycelium of marine fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108, named YCP, exhibiting strong in vivo antitumor ability via enhancement of the host immune responses. To further elucidate the role of YCP as a biological response modifier, the immunomoduating ...

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Plos One : Reduced Syncytin-1 Expression Levels in Placental Syndr...

By: Cees Oudejans

Description : Terminal differentiation of villous cytotrophoblasts (CT) ends in formation of the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast representing the fetal-maternal interface. Aberrations during this cell-fusion process are associated with Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR), Preeclampsia (PE) and High Elevated Liver and Low Platelets (HELLP) Syndrome. Syncytin-1, the envelope gene of the human Endogenous Retrovirus ERVW-1, is one of the most important genes involved i...

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Plos One : an Economical Method for Production of 2H,13Ch3- Threon...

By: Ramón Campos-olivas

Description : NMR studies of very high molecular weight protein complexes have been greatly facilitated through the development of labeling strategies whereby 13CH3 methyl groups are introduced into highly deuterated proteins. Robust and cost-effective labeling methods are well established for all methyl containing amino acids with the exception of Thr. Here we describe an inexpensive biosynthetic strategy for the production of L-[a-2H: b22H:c-13C]-Thr that can then be d...

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Plos One : Focusing on Attention ; the Effects of Working Memory C...

By: Joe Z. Tsien

Description : Background : Working memory (WM) is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low) concurrent working memory load (WML), and in individuals with low (vs. high) working memory capacity (WMC). In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention. Meth...

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Plos One : Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase by Allopurinol Prevents ...

By: Imed Eddine Gallouzi

Description : Alterations in muscle play an important role in common diseases and conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during hindlimb unloading due, at least in part, to the activation of xanthine oxidase (XO). The major aim of this study was to determine the mechanism by which XO activation causes unloading-induced muscle atrophy in rats, and its possible prevention by allopurinol, a well-known inhibitor of this enzyme. For this purpose we studied on...

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Plos One : Galectin-3 Impairment of Mycn-dependent Apoptosis- Sens...

By: Guillermo Velasco

Description : MYCN amplification occurs in about 20–25% of human neuroblastomas and characterizes the majority of the high-risk cases, which display less than 50% prolonged survival rate despite intense multimodal treatment. Somehow paradoxically, MYCN also sensitizes neuroblastoma cells to apoptosis, understanding the molecular mechanisms of which might be relevant for the therapy of MYCN amplified neuroblastoma. We recently reported that the apoptosis-sensitive phenoty...

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Plos One : T Cells Contribute to Stroke-induced Lymphopenia in Rat...

By: Esther Lutgens

Description : Stroke-induced immunodepression (SIID) results when T cell and non-T immune cells, such as B cells, NK cells and monocytes, are reduced in the peripheral blood and spleen after stroke. We investigated the hypothesis that T cells are required for the reductions in non-T cell subsets observed in SIID, and further examined a potential correlation between lymphopenia and High-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) release, a protein that regulates inflammation and i...

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Plos One : Left Ventricular Assist Device Effects on Metabolic Sub...

By: A. Shahab Akhter

Description : Measured metabolites related to glucose metabolism are diminished in failing hearts, but recovered their values post-LVAD. This differed from the amino acid levels, which decreased in heart failure but did not recover following LVAD. Creatine and the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate followed a similar pattern as the amino acid levels.

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Plos One : Rapid Genome Mapping in Nanochannel Arrays for Highly C...

By: James C. Nelson

Description : Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled high-throughput and low-cost generation of sequence data: however, de novo genome assembly remains a great challenge, particularly for large genomes. NGS short reads are often insufficient to create large contigs that span repeat sequences and to facilitate unambiguous assembly. Plant genomes are notorious for containing high quantities of repetitive elements, which combined with huge genome sizes, ...

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Plos One : Pentoxifylline, Inflammation, and Endothelial Function ...

By: Shilpa J. Buch

Description : PTX did not improve endothelial function and unexpectedly increased the inflammatory biomarker sTNFRI in HIV-infected participants not requiring antiretroviral therapy. Additional interventional research is needed to reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk in this population.

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Plos One : Intranasal Inoculation of White-tailed Deer Odocoileus ...

By: Anthony E. Kincaid

Description : Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postu...

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