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Determinants of Serum Zinc in a Random Population Sample of Four B...

By: Lutgarde Thijs

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: Zinc is an essential component in many biological enzymes. Zinc plays an importantrole in protein synthesis, bone formation, cell-mediated immunity, endocrine function, tissue growth, and wound healing. Among the trace elements, the concentration of zinc in the body is second only to iron (1,Z).

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Genetic Factors That Might Lead to Different Responses in Individu...

By: H. Edward Murray

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Perchlorate has been detected in groundwater in many parts of the United States, and recent detection in vegetable and dairy food products indicates that contamination by perchlorate is more widespread than previously thought. Perchlorate is a competitive inhibitor of the sodium iodide symporter, the thyroid cell?surface protein responsible for transporting iodide from the plasma into the thyroid. An estimated 4.3% of the U.S. population is subclinically hypothy...

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Age and Sex-Dependent Distribution of Persistent Organochlorine Po...

By: Peter Deplazes

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zurich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (...

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Relationship between Sex Steroid and Vitellogenin Concentrations i...

By: Alexander P. Scott

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: High concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG; egg yolk protein) have previously been found in male flounder (Platichthys flesus) from several UK estuaries; these levels have been ascribed to the presence of estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Gonadal abnormalities, including intersex, have also been recorded in these estuaries. However, there is no firm evidence to date that these two findings are causally linked or that the presence of estrogenic EDCs...

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Pulmonary Epithelial Integrity in Children : Relationship to Ambie...

By: Alfred Bernard

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Airway irritants such as ozone are known to impair lung function and induce airway inflammation. Clara cell protein (CC16) is a small anti-inflammatory protein secreted by the nonciliated bronchiolar Clara cells. CC16 in serum has been proposed as a noninvasive and sensitive marker of lung epithelial injury. In this study, we used lung function and serum CC16 concentration to examine the pulmonary responses to ambient O3 exposure and swimming pool attendance. Th...

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Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 112, No. 2, February 2004 ...

By: Lance Frazer

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Medical and dental instruments are composed of a variety of materials, some that can withstand repeated applications of heat and chemical treatment, and others that will fail, quickly and completely, upon such exposures. Something like an endoscope, which can cost more than $30,000, is a little pricey to treat as a disposable commodity, and the environmental costs of current cleaning techniques can be high. Now two Georgia researchers are developing what they be...

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Trichloroacetic Acid Effects on Rat Liver Peroxisomes and Enzyme-A...

By: Michael J. Parnell

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The presence of trichloroacetic acid and other nonvolatile halogenated organic products of water chlorination in drinking water has only been recently recognized (1-6). Consequently, very few data are available concerning expected environmental levels or what, if any, adverse effects these chemical products may have on biological systems. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and chloral hydrate are major nonvolatile chlorinated products formed ...

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A Method for in Vitro Culture of Rat Zymbal Gland : Use in Mechani...

By: M. Vijayaraj Reddy

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Rat Zymbal glands, located at the base of the external auditory canal, have a distinctive pink-yellow color, weigh about 7 to 8 mg, and have a diameter of 3 to 5 mm. These glands, also present in other rodents and insectivores, but not in humans, have a typical sebaceous morphology, which is characterized by rounded sacs of plump, fatcontaining cells (1). These cells subsequently break down, releasing fat droplets into the external ear canal (1). Maltoni et al. ...

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Thermal Modification of Chrysotile Asbestos : Evidence for Decreas...

By: R. Valentine

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Numerous investigations have attempted to correlate the physical and chemical characteristics of asbestos with its associated biological toxicity (1-3). While it has been suggested (4-6) that the physical dimensions of asbestos (i.e., surface area, fiber length, diameter and aspect ratio) may affect its carcinogenicity in rats after intrapleural injection, it remains uncertain whether fiber size alone determines the carcinogenic potential. Recent findings. for e...

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Emission-Particleinduced Ventilatory Abnormalities in a Rat Model ...

By: Sarah Y. Gardner

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Preexistent cardiopulmonary disease in humans appears to enhance susceptibility to the adverse effects of ambient particulate matter. Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated enhanced inflammation and mortality after intratracheal instillation (IT) and inhalation (INH) of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline (MCT). The present study was conducted to examine the effects of ROFA in this model on...

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Reproductive Toxicology of Disinfection By-Products

By: Harold Zenick

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The chlorinated organic compounds formed during water disinfection are largely the result of the interaction of chlorine with humic substances. Humic substances form in natural waters from the slow decomposition of lignins and other phenolic plant constituents. Combined with the metabolites from bacterial degradation of carbohydrates and proteins, they comprise a complex substrate for the action of chlorine that does not readily yield to precise characterization...

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The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms in Environmental Health

By: Samir N. Kelada

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Interest is increasing in the role of variations in the human genome (polymorphisms) in modifying the effect of exposures to environmental health hazards (often referred to as gene?environment interaction), which render some individuals or groups in the population more or less likely to develop disease after exposure. This review is intended for an audience of environmental health practitioners and students and is designed to raise awareness about this rapidly g...

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Determination of Selenium in the Environment and in Biological Mat...

By: Ewa M. Bern

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: Selenium is widely distributed in the environment (waters, soil, and air) albeit generally in very low concentrations (S 1 pgig). The selenium content sometimes reaches 0.5 mgig in limonite rocks, and 2.6 mgig in vanadium-uranium rocks (1). Data on selenium-containing rocks are from North and South America, Canada, Columbia, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Bulgaria, Germany, USSR and Mediterranean countries (1, 2). Some waters were also reported to...

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Cancer Mortality in Four Northern Wheat-Producing States

By: Dina M. Schreinemachers

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Chlorophenoxy herbicides such as 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4- chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) were first produced after the Second World War. They have been one of the most widely used class of herbicides since the mid-1960s, not only in the United States but also in other parts of the world. They are used in agriculture to control growth of broadleaf weeds in cereal grains and in nonagricultural settings to control growth of unwanted ...

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Pathogen Survival Trajectories : An Eco-Environmental Approach to ...

By: Chris Skelly

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Campylobacteriosis, like many human diseases, has its own ecology in which the propagation of human infection and disease depends on pathogen survival and finding new hosts in order to replicate and sustain the pathogen population. The complexity of this process, a process common to other enteric pathogens, has hampered control efforts. Many unknowns remain, resulting in a poorly understood disease ecology. To provide structure to these unknowns and help direct ...

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Determination of Human Body Burden Baseline Data of Platinum throu...

By: Anna Yoakum

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: This report presents baseline data on various human tissue burdens of platinum. The work was done as part of the Environmental Protection Agencys catalyst research program, which includes some 18 tasks on health effects of the noble metals platinum and palladium. The impetus for the program was Title I1 provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970, as amended, which requires reduction of CO, HC, and NO, emissions from light-duty motor vehicles. The automobile in...

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The Biological Response of .Infant Nonhuman Primates to a Polychlo...

By: L. J. Abrahamson

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Recently there have been numerous reports on lesions produced by the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various animals. However, there is a paucity of data on the effects of these compounds in primates, including man. The PCBs have been found in measurable amounts in human adipose tissue (1) and in human (2) and cows milk (3), where they pose a source of contamination for infants. In 1968, over 1000 persons were affected following the consumption of PCB-contam...

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Health Effects of Coal Mining and Combustion : Carcinogens and Cof...

By: Hans L. Falk

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: Polynuclear aromatics (PNA) have been known as carcinogens for many laboratory species since the tshtrirutcietus;r ea nadn def fcoarrtcsi nhoagveen biece anc etixvpiteyn dfoedr mtoa cnoyr rmeleamte- palakreynl tg rcooumpp, ound, depending on the location of the bers of that group.

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Effect of Lead Intoxication on the Postnatal Growth of the Rat Ner...

By: Martin R. Krigman

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Lead encephalopathy was induced in developing Long-Evans rata by adding lead carbonate (4% wlw) to the diet of nursing mother immediately after delivery. The morphological and biochemical features of cerebral ontogenesis were studied in 30-dayold rats. By the 30th postnatal day, the overall effect of lead intoxication was retardation of brain growth. The mass of both the cerebral gray and white matter was appreciably reduced in the lead rats without any reductio...

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Effects of Promoters on N-Butyl-N-(4- Hydroxybutyl)Nitrosamine-Ind...

By: Shoji Fukushima

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The two-stage process of chemical carcinogenesis, initiation and promotion, was initially proposed from studies on mouse skin and has subsequently been demonstrated in other organs, such as the liver, colon and urinary bladder (1-3)T. he two-stage process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis has been demonstrated in rats using single intravesical instillation of methylnitrosourea (4) or initiation by N-[4- (5-nitre2-furyl2-thiazolyl]formamid(Fe ANFT) (51, followed ...

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