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Geometry


Geometry (Ancient Greek: ?e?µet??a; geo- 'earth', -metri 'measurement') 'Earth-measuring' is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. Geometry is one of the oldest mathematical sciences. Initially a body of practical knowledge concerning lengths, areas, and volumes, in the 3rd century BC geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment—Euclidean geometry—set a standard for many centuries to follow.

 
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The Manufacturer and Builder : Volume 0007, Issue 8 August 1875: T...

By: Western and Company

Description: The Manufacturer and Builder was a practical journal of industrial progress published monthly in the 19th century by Western and Company.

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The Manufacturer and Builder : Volume 0007, Issue 8 August 1875: T...

By: Western and Company

Description: The Manufacturer and Builder was a practical journal of industrial progress published monthly in the 19th century by Western and Company.

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The New-england Magazine : Volume 0001, Issue 2 August 1831: New E...

By: J. T. and E. Buckingham

Description:The New England Magazine began as a continuation of The Bay State Monthly, and included that periodical's name in its title initially.

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Influence of Along-valley Terrain Heterogeneity on Exchange Proces...

By: M. W. Rotach; A. Gohm; J. S. Wagner

Description: Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Innsbruck, Austria. Idealized numerical simulations of thermally driven flows over various valley–plain topographies are performed under daytime conditions. Valley floor inclination and narrowing valley cross sections are systematically varied to study the influence of along-valley terrain heterogeneity on the developing boundary layer structure, as well as horizontal and vertical transport processes...

Catalano, F. and Cenedese, A.: High-resolution numerical modeling of thermally driven slope winds in a valley with strong capping, J. Appl. Meteorol., 49, 1859–1880, 2010.; Catalano, F. and Moeng, C.-H.: Large-eddy simulation of the daytime boundary layer in an idealized valley using the Weather Research and Forecasting numerical model, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 137, 49–75, doi:10.1007/s10546-010-9518-8, 2010.; Colette...

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Validation of Martilli's Urban Boundary Layer Scheme with Measurem...

By: G. Schayes; R. Hamdi

Description: Royal Meteorological Institute, Avenue Circulaire, 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium. Martilli's urban parameterization scheme is improved and implemented in a mesoscale model in order to take into account the typical effects of a real city on the air temperature near the ground and on the surface exchange fluxes. The mesoscale model is run on a single column using atmospheric data and radiation recorded above roof level as forcing. Here, the authors validate M...

Bornstein, R. D.: Mean diurnal circulation and Thermodynamic Evolution of Urban Boundary Layers, Modelling the Urban Boundary Layer, published by American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 53–94, 1987.; Brown, M. and Williams, M.: An urban canopy parameterization for mesoscale meteorological models, AMS 2nd Urban Env. Symp., Albuquerque, NM, 1998.; Brown, M.: Urban parameterizations for mesoscale meteorological models, Mesoscale Atmospheric dispersion, edited by: Boybe...

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Dependence of the Single-scattering Properties of Small Ice Crysta...

By: G. M. McFarquhar; J. Um

Description: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA. Small ice crystals (with maximum dimension <50 μm) appear quasi-circular when imaged by probes on aircraft flying through cloud. Therefore, idealized models constructed to calculate their single-scattering properties have included quasi-spherical models such as Chebyshev particles, Gaussian random spheres, and droxtals. Recently, an ice analogue grown f...

Arnott, W. P., Dong, Y. Y., Hallett, J., and Poellot, M. R.: Role of small ice crystals in radiative properties of cirrus: A case study, FIRE II, November 22, 1991, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 1371–1381, 1994.; Bacon, N. J. and Swanson, B. D.: Laboratory measurements of light scattering by single levitated ice crystals, J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2094–2104, 2000.; Bailey, M. P. and Hallett, J.: A Comprehensive Habit Diagram for Atmospheric Ice Crystals: Confirmation from the Laborato...

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Hydroxyl Radical Reactivity at the Air-ice Interface : Volume 9, I...

By: D. J. Donaldson; R. Zhao; T. F. Kahan

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 Saint George Street, Toronto, M5S 3H6 Ontario, Canada. Hydroxyl radicals are important oxidants in the atmosphere and in natural waters. They are also expected to be important in snow and ice, but their reactivity has not been widely studied in frozen aqueous solution. We have developed a spectroscopic probe to monitor the formation and reactions of hydroxyl radicals in situ. Hydroxyl radicals are produc...

Anastasio, C. and Chu, L.: Photochemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and Nitrous Acidium Ion (H2ONO+) in Aqueous Solution and Ice, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 1108–1114, 2009.; Ardura, D., Kahan, T. F., and Donaldson, D. J.: Self-association of naphthalene at the air-ice interface, J. Phys. Chem., 113, 7353–7359, 2009.; Anastasio, C., Galbavy, E. S., Hutterli, M. A., Burkhart, J. F., and Friel, D. K.: Photoformation of hydroxyl radical on snow grains at Summit, Greenland, At...

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Potential-vorticity Inversion and the Wave-turbulence Jigsaw: Some...

By: M. E. McIntyre

Description: Centre for Atmospheric Science at the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK. Two key ideas stand out as crucial to understanding atmosphere-ocean dynamics, and the dynamics of other planets including the gas giants. The first key idea is the invertibility principle for potential vorticity (PV). Without it, one can hardly give a coherent account of even so important and elementary a process as R...

Armi, L. and Flament, P.: Cautionary remarks on the spectral interpretation of turbulent flows, J. Geophys. Res., 90(C6), 11 779–11 782, 1985.; Baldwin, M. P., Gray, L. J., Dunkerton, T. J., Hamilton, K., Haynes, P. H., Randel, W. J., Holton, J. R., Alexander, M. J., Hirota, I., Horinouchi, T., Jones, D. B. A., Kinnersley, J. S., Marquardt, C., Sato, K., and Takahashi, M.: The quasi-biennial oscillation, Revs. Geophys., 39, 179–229, 2001.; Baumert, H. Z., Simpson, J. H, ...

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The Grain-size Patchiness of Braided Gravel-bed Streams – Example ...

By: E. Lajeunesse; L. Barrier; F. Métivier; B. Ye; C. Narteau; L. Malverti; Y. Liu; L. Guerit; E. Gayer; P. Meunier

Description: Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, UMR CNRS 7154, Paris, France. In gravel-bed rivers, sediments are often sorted into patches of different grain-sizes, but in braided streams, the link between this sorting and the channel morpho-sedimentary elements is still unclear. In this study, the size of the bed sediment in the shallow braided gravel-bed Urumqi River is characterized by surface-count and volumetr...

Andrews, E. D. and Parker, G.: Sediment transport In Gravel-bed rivers, chap. Formation of a coarse surface layer as a response to gravel mobility, 269–325, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1987.; Ashmore, P. E.: Laboratory modelling of gravel braided stream morphology, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 7, 201–225, 1982.; Ashmore, P. E., Bertoldi, W., and Gardner, J.: Active width of gravel bed braided rivers, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 36, 1510–1521, 2011.; Ashmore, P. E., Ferguson, R. I.,...

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Quantifying and Containing the Curse of High Resolution Coronal Im...

By: J.-f. Hochedez; P. Chainais; V. Delouille

Description: Royal Observatory of Belgium, Circular Avenue 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium. Future missions such as Solar Orbiter (SO), InterHelioprobe, or Solar Probe aim at approaching the Sun closer than ever before, with on board some high resolution imagers (HRI) having a subsecond cadence and a pixel area of about (80 km)2 at the Sun during perihelion. In order to guarantee their scientific success, it is necessary to evaluate if the photon counts availab...

Abramenko, V I.: Multifractal Analysis Of Solar Magnetograms, Solar Phys., 228, 29–42, \doi10.1007/s11207-005-3525-9, 2005.; Abry, P., Jaffard, S., and Lashermes, B.: Revisiting scaling, multifractal, and multiplicatives cascades with the wavelet leader lens, in: SPIE, 5607, 103–117, 2004.; Aletti, V., Velli, M., Bocchialini, K., Einaudi, G., Georgoulis, M., and Vial, J.-C.: Microscale Structures on the Quiet Sun and Coronal Heating, Appl. Phys. J., 544, 550–557, \doi10....

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Formation of Current Density Profile in Tilted Current Sheets : Vo...

By: R. Nakamura; W. Baumjohann; A. Runov; A. A. Petrukovich

Description: Space Research Institute, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya st., Moscow, 117997, Russia. We investigate Cluster observations of strongly tilted sheets (flapping events) in the magnetotail. In accordance with the simple model of slip deformation (vertical differential displacement of neighboring flux tubes), the Jy current density component in the tilted sheet remains constant and equal to that in the horizontal undisturbed sheet. However, a substan...

Asano, Y., Nakamura, R., Baumjohann, W., Runov, A., Vörös, Z., Volwerk, M., Zhang, T. L., Balogh, A., Klecker, B., and Rème, H.: How typical are atypical current sheets?, Geophys. Res. Lett, 32, L03108, doi:10.1029/2004GL021834, 2005.; Lui,~A. T. Y., Meng, C.-I., and Akasofu,~S.-I.: Wavy nature of the magnetotail neutral sheet, Geophys. Res. Lett., 5, 279–282, 1978.; Balogh,~A., Carr, C. M., Acuña, M. H., et al.: The Cluster magnetic field investigation: overview of in-f...

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Energetic Electrons in the Exterior Cusp: Identifying the Source :...

By: M. M. Klida; J. Chen; T. A. Fritz; B. M. Walsh

Description: Center for Space Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. A case study is presented to test the role several different sources may play in populating the exterior cusp with energetic (E>40 keV) electrons. The properties of the electrons measured in the exterior cusp are compared with the expected signatures of three sources in order to weigh the role each source may contribute in populating this region. The potential sources probed are: (1) s...

Antonova, A. E. and Shabansky, V. P.: Structure of the geomagnetic field at great distance from the Earth, Geomagn. Aeron., 8, 801–811, 1968.; Asikainen, T. and Mursula, K.: Energetic particle fluxes in the exterior cusp and the high-latitude dayside magnetosphere: statistical results from the Cluster/RAPID instrument, Ann. Geophys., 23, 2217–2230, 2005.; Asikainen, T. and Mursula, K.: Reconnection and energetic particles at the edge of the exterior cusp, Ann. Geophys., ...

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Incorporating Magnetic Field Observations in Wind Models of Low-ma...

By: A. A. Vidotto

Description: School of Physics & Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK. Stellar winds of cool, main-sequence stars are very tenuous and difficult to observe. Despite carrying away only a small amount of the stellar mass, they are important for regulating the rotation of the star and, consequently, its activity and magnetism. As it permeates the interplanetary space, the stellar wind interacts with any exoplanet encountered on its way, ...

Jardine, M., Vidotto, A. A., van Ballegooijen, A., Donati, J.-F., Morin, J., Fares, R., and Gombosi, T. I.: Influence of surface stressing on stellar coronae and winds, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 431, 528–538, 2013.; Llama, J., Vidotto, A. A., Jardine, M., Wood, K., Fares, R., and Gombosi, T. I.: Exoplanet transit variability: bow shocks and winds around HD 189733b, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 436, 2179–2187, 2013.; Parker, E. N.: Dynamics of the Interplanetary Gas and Ma...

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Modelling Water Availability, Sediment Export and Reservoir Sedime...

By: T. Francke; A. Güntner; E. N. Mueller; G. Mamede

Description: Institute of Geoecology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany. The process-based, spatially semi-distributed modelling framework WASA-SED for water and sediment transport in large dryland catchments is presented. The WASA-SED model simulates the runoff and erosion processes at the hillslope scale, the transport processes of suspended and bedload fluxes in the river reaches and the retention and remobilisation processes of sediments in reservoirs. The...

Ackers, P. and White, W. R.: Sediment transport: new approach and analysis, J. Hydr. Eng. Div.-ASCE, 99, 2041–2060, 1973.; Appel, K.: Characterisation of badlands and modelling of soil erosion in the Isabena watershed, NE Spain, Unpublished MSc thesis, University of Potsdam, Germany, 2006.; Arnold, J. G., William, J. R., Nicks, A. D., Sammons, N. B.: SWRRB (A basin scale simulation model for soil and water resources management), User's Manual, Texas A&M University Press,...

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A Mimetic, Semi-implicit, Forward-in-time, Finite Volume Shallow ...

By: T. Dubos; C. J. Cotter; J. Thuburn

Description: University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter, UK. A new algorithm is presented for the solution of the shallow water equations on quasi-uniform spherical grids. It combines a mimetic finite volume spatial discretization with a Crank–Nicolson time discretization of fast waves and an accurate and conservative forward-in-time advection scheme for mass and potential vorticity (PV). The algorithm is implemented...

Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V. R.: Computational design of the basic dynamical processes of the UCLA general circulation model, in: General Circulation Models of the Atmosphere, Methods in Computational Physics, vol 17, edited by: Chang, J., Academic Press, San Diego, 172–265, 1977.; Cotter, C. J. and Shipton, J.: Mixed finite elements for numerical weather prediction, J. Comput. Phys., 231, 7076–7091, 2012.; Crowley, W. P.: Numerical advection experiments, Mon. Weather Rev., ...

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Averaging Hydraulic Head, Pressure Head, and Gravitational Head in...

By: G. H. De Rooij

Description: Wageningen University, Centre for Water and Climate, Soil Physics, Ecohydrology and Groundwater Management, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Current theories for water flow in porous media are valid for scales much smaller than those at which problem of public interest manifest themselves. This provides a drive for upscaled flow equations with their associated upscaled parameters. Upscaling is often achieved through volume averaging, but the solution to the ...

Crapiste, G. H., Rotstein, E., and Whitaker, S.: A general closure scheme for the method of volume averaging, Chem. Eng. Sci., 41, 227–233, 1986.; Bear, J. and Bachmat, Y.: Introduction to modeling of transport phenomena in porous media, Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991.; Bertin, H. and Quintard, M.: Two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media III: Laboratory experiments for flow parallel to a stratified system, Transport in Porous Media, 5, 543–590, 1990.; Bhat...

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A Measure of Watershed Nonlinearity: Interpreting a Variable Insta...

By: J. Y. Ding

Description: Models and Consultative Services, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 134 Heatherside Drive, Toronto, Ontario, M1W 1T9, Canada. The linear unit hydrograph used in hydrologic design analysis and flood forecasting is known as the transfer function and the kernel function in time series analysis and systems theory, respectively. This paper reviews the use of an input-dependent or variable kernel in a linear convolution integral as a quasi-nonlinear appro...

Ashfag, A. and Webster, P.: The timing of runoff response in design flood analysis, Hydrol. Processes, 14, 1217–1233, 2000.; Bakhmeteff, B. A.: Hydraulics of open channels, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 1932.; Chang, C.-N., Da Motta Singer, E., and Koussis, A. D.: On the mathematics of storage routing, J. Hydrol., 61, 357–370, 1983.; Chen, S. J. and Singh, V. P.: Derivation of a new variable instantaneous unit hydrograph, J. Hydrol., 88, 25–42, 1986.; Amorocho, J.: The non...

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Flow Resistance of Vegetated Oblique Weir-like Obstacles During Hi...

By: W. S. J. Uijttewaal; S. Ali

Description: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Section, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, 2600GA Delft, the Netherlands. At high water stages, obstacles (submerged and particularly emerged vegetation) in the flood plains of a river contribute to the flow resistance and hamper the conveyance capacity. In particular the elevated vegetated parts are expected to play an important role. The objective of this research w...

Aichel, O. G.: Abflusszahlen fur schiefe Wehre (Discharge ratios for oblique weirs), Z. VDI, 95, 26–27, 1953.; Ali, S. and Uijttewaal, W. S. J.: Form drag due to vegetated weir-like obstacles interpreted as expansion loss, 33rd IAHR world congress, Vancouver, Canada, 139–146, 2009.; Ali, S. and Uijttewaal, W. S. J.: Flow resistance of vegetated weir-like obstacles during high water stages, Proceedings of river flow, Braunschweig, Germany, 293–299, 2010.; Ali, S. and Uijt...

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Predicting the Soil Moisture Retention Curve, from Soil Particle S...

By: M. H. Mohammadi; M. Vanclooster; F. Meskini-vishkaee

Description: Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran. A substantial number of models predicting the soil moisture characteristic curve (SMC) from particle size distribution (PSD) data underestimate the dry range of the SMC especially in soils with high clay and organic matter contents. In this study, we applied a continuous form of the PSD model to predict the SMC, and subsequently we developed a physically based scaling...

Fredlund, M. D., Fredlund, D. G., and Wilson, G. W.: An equation to represent grain-size distribution, Can. Geotech. J., 37, 817–827, 2000.; do Carmo, M.: Differential geometry of curves and surfaces, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 98 pp., 1976.; Arya, L. M. and Paris, J. F.: A physicoempirical model to predict the soil moisture characteristic from particle-size distribution and bulk density data, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 45, 1023–1030, 1981.; Arya, L. M., Ritchter, J. C...

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Surface Seiches in Flathead Lake : Volume 19, Issue 6 (03/06/2015)

By: C. C. Gotschalk; T. C. Lippmann; G. Kirillin; S. Schimmelpfennig; M. S. Lorang

Description: Department of Ecohydrology, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Berlin, Germany. Standing surface waves or seiches are inherent hydrodynamic features of enclosed water bodies. Their two-dimensional structure is important for estimating flood risk, coastal erosion, and bottom sediment transport, and for understanding shoreline habitats and lake ecology in general. In this work, we present analysis of two-dimensional seiche ...

Bernhardt, J. and Kirillin, G.: Seasonal pattern of rotation-affected internal seiches in a small temperate lake, Limnol. Oceanogr., 58, 1344–1360, 2013.; Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, edited by: Heaps, N. S., American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1–16, doi:10.1029/CO004p0001, 1987.; Csanady, G.: L...

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