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LTA-9 FEASIBILITY STUDY REPORT

By: NON

Supplemental catalog subcollection information: NASA Publication Collection; Astrophysics and Technical Documents

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Plos One : Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia in Tropical and Low and Middle Income Countries ; a Systematic Review and Meta-regression, Volume 8

By: Sten H. Vermund

Description : There is a positive relationship between GDP and risk of PCP diagnosis. Although failure to diagnose infection in poorer countries may contribute to this, we also hypothesise that poverty exposes at-risk patients to a wide range of infections and that the relatively non-pathogenic P. jirovecii is therefore under-represented. As LMIC develop economically they eliminate the conditions underlying transmission of virulent infection : P. jirovecii, ubiquitous in all settings, then becomes a greater relative threat....

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Measurements in a large angle oblique jet impingement flow

By: Foss, J. F

Supplemental catalog subcollection information: NASA Publication Collection; Astrophysics and Technical Documents; The flow field associated with the oblique impingement of an axisymmetric jet was investigated in the externally blown flap configuration fo...

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An Improved Tropospheric No2 Retrieval for Omi Observations in the Vicinity of Mountainous Terrain : Volume 2, Issue 2 (29/07/2009)

By: K. F. Boersma; R. Dirksen; D. Brunner; P. Wang; Y. Zhou

Description: Empa, Swiss Federal Lab. for Materials Testing and Research, Dübendorf, Switzerland. We present an approach to reduce topography-related errors of vertical tropospheric columns (VTC) of NO2 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the vicinity of mountainous terrain. This is crucial for reliable estimates of air pollution levels over our particular area of interest, the Alpine region and the adjacent planes, where the Dutch OMI NO2 product (DOMINO) exhibits significant biases due to the coarse resolution of surface parameters used in the retrieval. Our approach replaces the coarse-gridded surface pressures by accurate pixel-average values using a high-resolution topography data set, and scales the a priori NO2 profiles accordingly. NO2 VTC reprocessed in this way for the period 2006–2007 suggest that NO2 over the Po Valley in Italy and over the Swiss plateau is underestimated by DOMINO by about 15–20% in winter and 5% in summer under clear-sky conditions (cloud radiance fraction <0.5). A sensitivity analysis shows that these seasonal diff...

Acarreta, J. R., De Haan, J. F., and Stammes, P.: Cloud pressure retrieval using the O$_2-$O2absorption band at 477 nm, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D05204, doi:10.1029/2003JD003915, 2004.; ATBD GDP 4.0: Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for GOME Total Column Densities of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide, UPAS/GDOAS: GDP 4.0, ERSE-DTEX-EOPGTN-04-0007, Iss./Rev. 1/A, 2004.; Bertram, T. H., Heckel, A., Richter, A., Burrows, J. P., and Cohen, R. C.: Satellite measurements of daily variations in soil NOx emissions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(24), L24812 doi:10.1029/2005GL024640, 2005.; Blond, N., Boersma, K. F., Eskes, H. J., van der A, R. J., Van Roozendael, M., De Smedt, I., Bergametti, G., and Vautard, R.: Intercomparison of SCIAMACHY nitrogen dioxide observations, in-situ measurements and air quality modeling results over Western Europe, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10311, doi:10.1029/2006JD007277, 2007.; Boersma, K. F., Eskes, H. J., and Brinksma, E. J.: Error analysis for tropospheric NO2 retrieval from space, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04311, doi:10.1029/2003JD003962, 2004.; Boersma, K. F., Eskes, H. J., Veefkind, J....

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Influence of Turbidity and Clouds on Satellite Total Ozone Data Over Madrid (Spain) : Volume 28, Issue 7 (14/07/2010)

By: D. Loyola; E. Hernandez; M. Antón; J. L. Camacho

Description: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET), Madrid, Spain. This article focuses on the comparison of the total ozone column data from three satellite instruments; Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS) on board the Earth Probe (EP), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board AURA and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board ERS/2, with ground-based measurement recorded by a well calibrated Brewer spectrophotometer located in Madrid during the period 1996–2008. A cluster classification based on solar radiation (global, direct and diffuse), cloudiness and aerosol index allow selecting hazy, cloudy, very cloudy and clear days. Thus, the differences between Brewer and satellite total ozone data for each cluster have been analyzed. The accuracy of EP-TOMS total ozone data is affected by moderate cloudiness, showing a mean absolute bias error (MABE) of 2.0%. In addition, the turbidity also has a significant influence on EP-TOMS total ozone data with a MABE ~1.6%. Those data are in contrast with clear days with MABE ~1.2%. The total ozone data derived from the OMI instrument show clear bias at clear and ...

Antón, M., Loyola, D., Navascúes, B., and Valks, P.: Comparison of GOME total ozone data with ground data from the Spanish Brewer spectroradiometers, Ann. Geophys., 26, 401–412, doi:10.5194/angeo-26-401-2008, 2008.; Antón, M., Loyola, D., López, M., Vilaplana, J. M., Bañón, M., Zimmer, W., and Serrano, A.: Comparison of GOME-2/MetOp total ozone data with Brewer spectroradiometer data over the Iberian Peninsula, Ann. Geophys., 27, 1377–1386, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-1377-2009, 2009a.; Antón, M., López, M., Vilaplana, J. M., Kroon, M., McPeters, R. D., Bañón, M., and Serrano, A.: Validation of OMI-TOMS and OMI-DOAS total ozone column using five Brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D14307, doi:10.1029/2009JD012003, 2009b.; Antón, M., Vilaplana, J. M., Kroon, M., Serrano, A., Parias, M., Cancillo, M. L., and de la Morena, B.: The empirically corrected EP-TOMS total ozone data against Brewer measurements at El Arenosillo (Southwestern Spain), IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 48(7), 3039–3045, 2010.; Balis, D., Lambert, J. C., van Roozendael, M., Spurr, R., Loyola, D., Livschitz, Y., Valks, P., Amiridis,...

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An Optimised Method for Calculating the O+-o Collision Parameter from Aeronomical Measurements : Volume 13, Issue 5 (30/11/-0001)

By: A. Aruliah; A. D. Farmer; C. J. Davis

Description: A study has been made of the interaction between the thermosphere and the ionosphere at high latitudes, with particular regard to the value of the O+-O collision parameter. The European incoherent scatter radar (EISCAT) was used to make tristatic measurements of plasma parameters at F-region altitudes while simultaneous measurements of the neutral wind were made by a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). The radar data were used to derive the meridional neutral winds in a way similar to that used by previous authors. The accuracy of this technique at high latitudes is reduced by the dynamic nature of the auroral ionosphere and the presence of significant vertical winds. The derived winds were compared with the meridional winds measured by the FPI. For each night, the value of the O+-O collision parameter which produced the best agreement between the two data sets was found. The precision of the collision frequency found in this way depends on the accuracy of the data. The statistical method was critically examined in an attempt to account for the variability in the data sets. This study r...

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A Statistical Method for Evaluating Systematic Relationships

Document Series: http://biodiversitylibrary.org/oai

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A Statistical Method for Evaluating Systematic Relationships

By: R R Sokal

Document Series: http://biodiversitylibrary.org/oai

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Simulation of Surface Runoff for Upper Tapi Subcatchment Area (Burhanpur Watershed) Using Swat : Volume Xl-8, Issue 1 (28/11/2014)

By: C. K. Singh; M. K. Goel; V. Shivhare

Description: Dept. of Natural Resource, TERI University, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, India. Water related activity that takes place in one part of a river basin may have consequence in the other part. Any plan related to inter basin transfer of water from a water surplus basin to a deficit basin has to take into account the water availability and demands under the present and future scenarios of water use. Watershed is a hydrologic unit where all stream exit from the common outlet. In the present study, Tapi subcatchment area (Burhanpur watershed) located in inter-state basin of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, India, is selected for the estimation of surface runoff using SWAT model. The SWAT works in conjunction with Arc GIS 9.3. Various parameters Digital Elevation Model (DEM), slope derived from DEM, Landuse/Landcover (LULC) and NBSSLUP soil data and temporal data for temperature and precipitation was used as input for the model to predict runoff at the catchment outlet. The model was run from the year 1992 to 1997. The performance of the model in terms of simulated runoff was evaluated using statistical method and compared si...

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A Statistical Method for Evaluating Systematic Relationshops

Document Series: http://biodiversitylibrary.org/oai

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Plos One : Histological Criteria for Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis – a Standardized Approach, Volume 7

By: Jason Mulvenna

Description : The introduced statistical method allows discriminating between simple sclerosis and EPS. The misclassification error will likely improve with every new case added to the database....

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A Statistical Method for Evaluating Systematic Relationships

Document Series: http://biodiversitylibrary.org/oai

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Large-scale Distributions of Ionospheric Horizontal and Field-aligned Currents Inferred from Eiscat : Volume 14, Issue 12 (30/11/-0001)

By: C. Peymirat; D. Fontaine

Description: CETP-CNRS, Centre Universitaire, 10-12 Avenue de l'Europe, 78140 Vélizy, France. Statistical models for large-scale convection and for ionospheric conductances were previously derived from observations of the incoherent-scatter radar EISCAT. We complete this large-scale description with statistical models of the horizontal and field-aligned currents achieved from the same data base and for the same ranges of the magnetic activity index Kp. Except for the high-latitude dayside currents generally located poleward of the radar field of view, a large part of the whole current system can be probed with EISCAT. Globally consistent with previously published models, our results also exhibit some differences, such as the asymmetry in the local-time extension of the current sheets, concentrated to a few hours around 18 MLT in the evening sector, while widely spread from premidnight to prenoon magnetic local times on the morningside. This statistical description of the current system above EISCAT allowed us to examine several aspects of the large-scale auroral electrodynamics, namely the relationships between c...

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A Statistical Method for Evaluating Systematic Relationships

By: Sokal R and Michener C

Document Series: http://biodiversitylibrary.org/oai

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Statistical-models in Quality-control for Trace Analysis

By: Elder, R.S.

Description: Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards

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Plos One : Mechanistic Insights Into Validoxylamine a 7’-phosphate Synthesis by Vlde Using the Structure of the Entire Product Complex, Volume 7

By: Eugene A. Permyakov

Description : The pseudo-glycosyltransferase VldE catalyzes non-glycosidic C-N coupling between an unsaturated cyclitol and a saturated aminocyclitol with the conservation of the stereochemical configuration of the substrates to form validoxylamine A 79- phosphate, the biosynthetic precursor of the antibiotic validamycin A. To study the molecular basis of its mechanism, the three-dimensional structures of VldE from Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. limoneus was determined in apo form, in complex with GDP, in complex with GDP and validoxylamine A 79-phosphate, and in complex with GDP and trehalose. The structure of VldE with the catalytic site in both an ‘‘open’’ and ‘‘closed’’ conformation is also described. With these structures, the preferred binding of the guanine moiety by VldE, rather than the uracil moiety as seen in OtsA could be explained. The elucidation of the VldE structure in complex with the entirety of its products provides insight into the internal return mechanism by which catalysis occurs with a net retention of the stereochemical configuration of the donated cyclitol....

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Evaluation of Tropospheric Ozone Columns Derived from Assimilated Gome Ozone Profile Observations : Volume 9, Issue 3 (13/05/2009)

By: A. T. J. De Laat; R. J. Van Der A; M. Van Weele

Description: Royal Netherlands Metrological Institute (KNM), The Netherlands. Tropospheric O3 column estimates are produced and evaluated from spaceborne O3 observations by the subtraction of assimilated O3 profile observations from total column observations, the so-called Tropospheric O3 ReAnalysis or TORA method. Here we apply the TORA method to six years (1996–2001) of ERS-2 GOME/TOMS total O3 and ERS-2 GOME O3 profile observations using the TM5 global chemistry-transport model with a linearized O3 photochemistry parameterization scheme.

Free running TM5 simulations show good agreement with O3 sonde observations in the upper-tropospheric and lower stratospheric (UTLS). Assimilation of GOME O3 profile observations improves the comparisons in the tropical UTLS region but slightly degrades the model-to-sonde comparisons in the extra-tropical UTLS for both short day-do-day variability as well as for monthly means. We suggest that this degradation is related to the large ground pixel size of the GOME O3...

Balis, D., Lambert, J.-C., van Roozendael, M., Spurr, R., Loyola, D., Livschitz, Yl., Valks, P., Amiridis, V., Gerard, P., Granville, J., and Zehner, C.: Ten years of GOME/ERS-2 total ozone data: the new GOME Data Processor (GDP) Version 4: II. Ground-based validation and comparisons with TOMS V7/V8, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D07307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006376, 2007.; Brasseur, G. P., Orlando, J. J., and Tyndall, G. S.: Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1999.; Bhartia, P. K.: TOMS v8 Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD), http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/version8/v8toms_atbd.pdf, 2004, 21 February 2009.; Bregman, B., Segers, A., Krol, M., Meijer, E., and van Velthoven, P.: On the use of mass-conserving wind fields in chemistry-transport models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 447–457, 2003.; Cariolle, D. and Deque, M.: Southern Hemisphere Medium-Scale Waves and Total Ozone Disturbances in a Spectral General Circulation Model, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 10825–10846, 1986.; Cariolle, D. and Teyssèdre, H.: A revised linear ozone photochemistry parameterizat...

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Retrieval and Validation of Ozone Columns Derived from Measurements of Sciamachy on Envisat : Volume 5, Issue 4 (04/07/2005)

By: J. P. Veefkind; E. J. Brinksma; R. J. Van Der A; J. F. De Haan; P. J. M. Valks; H. J. Eskes

Description: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands. This paper describes a new ozone column retrieval algorithm and its application to SCIAMACHY measurements. The TOSOMI algorithm is based on the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique and implements several improvements over older algorithms. These improvements include aspects like (i) the explicit treatment of rotational Raman scattering, (ii) an improved air-mass factor formulation which is based on a simulation of the reflectivity spectrum and a subsequent DOAS fit of this simulated spectrum, (iii) the use of an improved ozone climatology and a column dependent air-mass factor, (iv) the use of daily varying ECMWF temperature profile analyses. The results of three validation exercises are reported. The TOSOMI columns are compared with an extensive set of ground-based observations (Brewer, Dobson) for the years 2003 and 2004. Secondly, a direct comparison for January–June 2003 with two new GOME retrievals, GDP Version 4 and TOGOMI, is presented. Third, data assimilation is used to study the dependence of the TOSOMI...

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Multi Sensor Reanalysis of Total Ozone : Volume 10, Issue 4 (28/04/2010)

By: M. A. F. Allaart; H. J. Eskes; R. J. Van Der A

Description: KNMI, P.O. Box 201, 3730 AE De Bilt, The Netherlands. A single coherent total ozone dataset, called the Multi Sensor Reanalysis (MSR), has been created from all available ozone column data measured by polar orbiting satellites in the near-ultraviolet Huggins band in the last thirty years. Fourteen total ozone satellite retrieval datasets from the instruments TOMS (on the satellites Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe), SBUV (Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, NOAA-11 and NOAA-16), GOME (ERS-2), SCIAMACHY (Envisat), OMI (EOS-Aura), and GOME-2 (Metop-A) have been used in the MSR. As first step a bias correction scheme is applied to all satellite observations, based on independent ground-based total ozone data from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Center. The correction is a function of solar zenith angle, viewing angle, time (trend), and stratospheric temperature. As second step data assimilation was applied to create a global dataset of total ozone analyses. The data assimilation method is a sub-optimal implementation of the Kalman filter technique, and is based on a chemical transport model driven by ECMWF meteorological fields. ...

Balis, D., Lambert, J.-C., Van Roozendael, M., Spurr, R., Loyola, D., Livschitz, Y., Valks, P., Amiridis, V., Gerard, P., Granville, J., and Zehner, C.: Ten years of GOME/ERS-2 total ozone data – The new GOME data processor (GDP) version 4: 2. Ground-based validation and comparisons with TOMS V7/V8, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D07307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006376, 2007a.; Balis, D., Kroon, M., Koukouli, M. E., Brinksma, E. J., Labow, G., Veefkind, J. P., and McPeters, R. D.: Validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument total ozone column measurements using Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometer ground-based observations, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S46, doi:10.1029/2007JD008796, 2007b.; Bhartia, P. K. and Wellemeyer, C.: TOMS-V8 total O3 algorithm, in: OMI Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, vol. II, OMI Ozone Products, ATBD-OMI-02, edited by: Bhartia, P. K., pp. 15–31, NASA Goddard Space Flight Cent., Greenbelt, Md., http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/for_scientists/atbd/, 2002.; Bodeker, G. E., Shiona, H., and Eskes, H.: Indicators of Antarctic ozone depletion, Atmos...

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Montana economic indicators; Issue: 1978 4TH QTR

By: Montana. Employment Security Division. Research and Analysis Section

An analysis of past and present economic trends.; Continues: Montana economic indicators, ISSN 0146-4302, issued by: Montana. State Employment Service. Research and Analysis; 4:MONTANA ECONOMIC INDICATORS SUMMER 1976-FALL 1981...

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Gome-2 Total Ozone Columns from Metop-a/Metop-b and Assimilation in the MacC System : Volume 7, Issue 9 (12/09/2014)

By: A. Inness; W. Zimmer; P. Valks; M. E. Koukouli; R. J. D. Spurr; D. S. Balis; M. Van Roozendael; D. G. Loyola; N. Hao; C. Lerot; I. Zyrichidou

Description: Institut für Methodik der Fernerkundung (IMF), Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. The two Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument (GOME-2) sensors operated in tandem are flying onboard EUMETSAT's (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellites, launched in October 2006 and September 2012 respectively. This paper presents the operational GOME-2/MetOp-A (GOME-2A) and GOME-2/MetOp-B (GOME-2B) total ozone products provided by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M-SAF). These products are generated using the latest version of the GOME Data Processor (GDP version 4.7). The enhancements in GDP 4.7, including the application of Brion–Daumont–Malicet ozone absorption cross sections, are presented here. On a global scale, GOME-2B has the same high accuracy as the corresponding GOME-2A products. There is an excellent agreement between the ozone total columns from the two sensors, with GOME-2B values slightly lower with a mean difference of only 0.55±0.29%. First global v...

Antón, M., Loyola, D., López, M., Vilaplana, J. M., Bañón, M., Zimmer, W., and Serrano, A.: Comparison of GOME-2/MetOp total ozone data with Brewer spectroradiometer data over the Iberian Peninsula, Ann. Geophys., 27, 1377–1386, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-1377-2009, 2009.; Antón, M., Koukouli, M. E., Kroon, M., McPeters, R. D., Labow, G. J., Balis, D., and Serrano, A.: Global validation of empirically corrected EP-Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone columns using Brewer and Dobson ground-based measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D19305, doi:10.1029/2010JD014178, 2010.; Balis, D., Lambert, J.-C., Van Roozendael, M., Loyola, D., Spurr, R., Livschitz, Y., Valks, P., Ruppert, T., Gerard, P., Granville, J., and Amiridis, V.: Ten years of GOME/ERS2 total ozone data-The new GOME data processor(GDP) version 4:2, Ground-based validation and comparisons with TOMS V7/V8, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D07307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006376, 2007a.; Balis, D., Kroon, M., Koukouli, M. E., Bri...

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Montana economic indicators; Issue: 1981 1ST QTR

By: Montana. Employment Security Division. Research and Analysis Section

An analysis of past and present economic trends.; Continues: Montana economic indicators, ISSN 0146-4302, issued by: Montana. State Employment Service. Research and Analysis; 4:MONTANA ECONOMIC INDICATORS SUMMER 1976-FALL 1981...

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Interhemispheric Gradient of Atmospheric Radiocarbon Reveals Natural Variability of Southern Ocean Winds : Volume 7, Issue 4 (26/10/2011)

By: D. Bianchi; S. E. Mikaloff-fletcher; C. Beaulieu; J. L. Sarmiento; P. J. Reimer; T. Naegler; E. D. Galbraith; R. D. Slater; K. B. Rodgers; B. R. Lintner; A. G. Hogg; D. Iudicone; A. Gnanadesikan

Description: AOS Program, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. Tree ring Δ14C data (Reimer et al., 2004; McCormac et al., 2004) indicate that atmospheric Δ14C varied on multi-decadal to centennial timescales, in both hemispheres, over the period between AD 950 and 1830. The Northern and Southern Hemispheric Δ14C records display similar variability, but from the data alone is it not clear whether these variations are driven by the production of 14C in the stratosphere (Stuiver and Quay, 1980) or by perturbations to exchanges between carbon reservoirs (Siegenthaler et al., 1980). As the sea-air flux of 14CO2 has a clear maximum in the open ocean regions of the Southern Ocean, relatively modest perturbations to the winds over this region drive significant perturbations to the interhemispheric gradient. In this study, model simulations are used to show that Southern Ocean winds are likely a main driver of the observed variability in the interhemispheric gradient over AD 950–1830, and further, that this variability may be larger than the Southern Ocea...

Aumont, O.: Étude du cycle naturel du carbone dans un modèle 3-D de l'océan mondial, PhD. Thesis, Univ. Paris VI, Paris, 1998.; Anderson, A. F., Ali, S., Bradtmiller, L. I., Nielsen, S. H. H., Fleisher, M. Q., Anderson, B. E., and Burckle, L. H.: Wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2, Science, 323, 1443, doi:10.1126/science.1167441, 2009.; Battle, M., Mialoff-Fletcher, S., Bender, M. L., Keeling, R. F., Manning, A. C., Gruber, N., Tans, P. P., Hendricks, M. B., Ho, D. T., Simonds, C., Mika, R., and Paplawsky, B.: Atmospheric potential oxygen: New observations and their implications for some atmospheric and oceanic models, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 20, GB1010, doi:10.1029/2005GB002534, 2006.; Böning, C., Dispert, A., Visbeck, M., Rintoul, S., and Scharzkopf, F.: The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to recent climate change, Nat. Geosci., 1, 864–869, 2008.; Braziunas, T. F., Fung, I. Y., and Stuiver, M.: The preindustrial atmospheric 14CO2 latitudinal gradient as related to exchanges among a...

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Montana economic indicators; Issue: 1980 3RD QTR

By: Montana. Employment Security Division. Research and Analysis Section

An analysis of past and present economic trends.; Continues: Montana economic indicators, ISSN 0146-4302, issued by: Montana. State Employment Service. Research and Analysis; 4:MONTANA ECONOMIC INDICATORS SUMMER 1976-FALL 1981...

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Plos One : a Comparison of Statistical Methods for Identifying Outof- Date Systematic Reviews, Volume 7

By: Joel Joseph Gagnier

Description : Our study shows that three practical statistical methods could be applied to examine the need to update SRs

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Montana economic indicators; Issue: 1980 2ND QTR

By: Montana. Employment Security Division. Research and Analysis Section

An analysis of past and present economic trends.; Continues: Montana economic indicators, ISSN 0146-4302, issued by: Montana. State Employment Service. Research and Analysis; 4:MONTANA ECONOMIC INDICATORS SUMMER 1976-FALL 1981...

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Mixed Layer Sub-mesoscale Parameterization – Part 1: Derivation and Assessment : Volume 6, Issue 3 (16/07/2010)

By: M. S. Dubovikov; V. M. Canuto

Description: NASA, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY, 10025, USA. Several studies have shown that sub-mesoscales (SM ~1 km horizontal scale) play an important role in mixed layer dynamics. In particular, high resolution simulations have shown that in the case of strong down-front wind, the re-stratification induced by the SM is of the same order of the de-stratification induced by small scale turbulence, as well as of that induced by the Ekman velocity. These studies have further concluded that it has become necessary to include SM in ocean global circulation models (OGCMs), especially those used in climate studies.

The goal of our work is to derive and assess an analytic parameterization of the vertical tracer flux under baroclinic instabilities and wind of arbitrary directions and strength. To achieve this goal, we have divided the problem into two parts: first, in this work we derive and assess a parameterization of the SM vertical flux of an arbitrary tracer for ocean codes that resolve mesoscales, M, but not sub-mesoscales, SM. In Part 2, presented elsewhere, we have used the results of t...

Batchelor, G. K.: The theory of homogeneous turbulence, Cambridge Univ. Press, 195 pp., 1970.; Boccaletti, G., Ferrari, R., and Fox-Kemper, B.: Mixed layer instabilities and restratification, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2228–2250, 2007.; Canuto, V. M. and Dubovikov, M. S.: A new approach to turbulence, Int. J. Mod. Phys., 12(18), 3121–3152, 1997.; Canuto, V. M., Dubovikov, M. S., and Yu, G.: A dynamical model for turbulence, IX. Reynolds stress spectra for shear-driven flows, Phys. Fluids, 11(3), 676–691, 1999.; Canuto, V. M. and Dubovikov, M. S.: Modeling mesoscale eddies, cited as CD5, Ocean Model., 8, 1-30, 2005.; Canuto, V. M. and Dubovikov, M. S.: Dynamical model of mesoscales in z- coordinates, cited as CD6, Ocean Model., 11, 123–166, 2006.; Canuto, V. M. and Dubovikov, M. S.: Derivation and assessment of a mixed layer sub-mesoscale model, cited as CD9, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 6, 2157–2192, doi:10.5194/osd-6-2157-2009, 2009.; Canuto, V. M., Dubovikov, M. S., Luneva, M., Clayson, C. A., and Leboissetier, A.: Mixed layer mesoscales: a parameterization for OGCMs, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 7, 873–917, doi:10.5194/osd-7-873-2010, 2010.; Canuto...

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Montana economic indicators; Issue: 1980 1ST QTR

By: Montana. Employment Security Division. Research and Analysis Section

An analysis of past and present economic trends.; Continues: Montana economic indicators, ISSN 0146-4302, issued by: Montana. State Employment Service. Research and Analysis; 4:MONTANA ECONOMIC INDICATORS SUMMER 1976-FALL 1981...

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Plos One : the Relationship of Sugar to Population-level Diabetes Prevalence ; an Econometric Analysis of Repeated Cross- Sectional Data, Volume 8

By: Bridget Wagner

Description : While experimental and observational studies suggest that sugar intake is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes, independent of its role in obesity, it is unclear whether alterations in sugar intake can account for differences in diabetes prevalence among overall populations. Using econometric models of repeated cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries, we found that every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) was associated with increased diabetes prevalence by 1.1% (p ,0.001) after testing for potential selection biases and controlling for other food types (including fibers, meats, fruits, oils, cereals), total calories, overweight and obesity, period-effects, and several socioeconomic variables such as aging, urbanization and income. No other food types yielded significant individual associations with diabetes prevalence after controlling for obesity and other confounders. The impact of sugar on diabetes was independent of sedentary behavior and alcohol use, and the effect was modified but not confounded by obesity or...

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Montana economic indicators; Issue: 1979 4TH QTR

By: Montana. Employment Security Division. Research and Analysis Section

An analysis of past and present economic trends.; Continues: Montana economic indicators, ISSN 0146-4302, issued by: Montana. State Employment Service. Research and Analysis; 4:MONTANA ECONOMIC INDICATORS SUMMER 1976-FALL 1981...

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Plos One : Dimerization of Dock2 is Essential for Dock2-mediated Rac Activation and Lymphocyte Migration, Volume 7

By: Laszlo Buday

Description : The migratory properties of lymphocytes depend on DOCK2, an atypical Rac activator predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells. Although DOCK2 does not contain the Dbl homology domain typically found in guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), DOCK2 mediates the GTP-GDP exchange reaction for Rac via its DOCK homology region (DHR)-2 (also known as CZH2 or Docker) domain. DOCK2 DHR-2 domain is composed of three lobes, and Rac binding site and catalytic center are generated entirely from lobes B and C. On the other hand, lobe A has been implicated in dimer formation, yet its physiological significance remains unknown. Here, we report that lobe A-mediated DOCK2 dimerization is crucial for Rac activation and lymphocyte migration. We found that unlike wild-type DOCK2, DOCK2 mutant lacking lobe A failed to restore motility and polarity when expressed in thymoma cells and primary T cells lacking endogenous expression of DOCK2. Similar results were obtained with the DOCK2 point mutant having a defect in dimerization. Deletion of lobe A from the DHR-2 domain did not affect Rac GEF activity in vitro. However, fluorescence r...

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Montana economic indicators; Issue: 1979 3RD QTR

By: Montana. Employment Security Division. Research and Analysis Section

An analysis of past and present economic trends.; Continues: Montana economic indicators, ISSN 0146-4302, issued by: Montana. State Employment Service. Research and Analysis; 4:MONTANA ECONOMIC INDICATORS SUMMER 1976-FALL 1981...

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Non-pharmacological Interventions to Reduce the Risk of Diabetes in People with Impaired Glucose Regulation : a Systematic Review and Economic Evaluation

By: Gillett M

Description: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in the UK and worldwide. Before the onset of T2DM, there are two conditions characterised by blood glucose levels that are above normal but below the threshold for diabetes. If s...

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Montana economic indicators; Issue: 1977 2ND QTR

By: Montana. Employment Security Division. Research and Analysis Section

An analysis of past and present economic trends.; Continues: Montana economic indicators, ISSN 0146-4302, issued by: Montana. State Employment Service. Research and Analysis; 4:MONTANA ECONOMIC INDICATORS SUMMER 1976-FALL 1981...

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Plos One : Impact of Gdp, Spending on R&D, Number of Universities and Scientific Journals on Research Publications Among Asian Countries, Volume 8

By: Tobias Preis

Description : The Asian countries who spend more on R&D have a large number of universities and scientific indexed journals produced more in research outcomes including total number of research publication, citations per documents and H-index in various science and social science subjects....

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