Frottoir

This article is about tool for hand washing. For the process of developing ruts in a gravel or dirt road, see Washboarding.

A washboard is a tool designed for hand washing clothing. With mechanized cleaning of clothing becoming more common by the end of the 20th century, the washboard has become better known for its originally subsidiary use as a musical instrument.

The traditional washboard is usually constructed with a rectangular wooden frame in which are mounted a series of ridges or corrugations for the clothing to be rubbed upon. For 19th century washboards, the ridges were often of wood; by the 20th century, ridges of metal were more common. A "fluted" metal washboard was patented in the United States in 1833. Zinc washboards were manufactured in the United States from the middle of the 19th century. In the late 20th century and early 21st century, ridges of galvanized steel are most common, but some modern boards are made of glass. Washboards with brass ridges are still made, and some who use washboards as musical instruments prefer the sound of the somewhat more expensive brass boards. One of the few musical instruments invented entirely in the United States is the Zydeco Frottoir (Zydeco Rubboard), a distillation of the washboard into essential elements (percussive surface with shoulder straps) designed by Clifton Chenier and built by Willie Landry in 1946.

Washboard used for laundry

Though the washboard is generally used today as a musical instrument or sound-making device, many parts of the world still use them for washing clothes. Clothes are soaked in hot soapy water in a washtub or sink, then squeezed and rubbed against the ridged surface of the washboard to force the cleansing fluid through the cloth to carry away dirt. Washboards may also be used for washing in a river, with or without soap. Then the clothes are rinsed. The rubbing has a similar effect to beating the clothes and household linen on rocks, an ancient method, but is less abrasive.

Washboard as a musical instrument

Newman Taylor Baker.

In British Columbia, Canada, Tony McBride, known as “Mad Fingers McBride” performs with a group called The Genuine Jug Band. Referred to as “The Canadian Washboard King”, his percussion set-up was created with personal help from members of the Hoosier Hot Shots and Spike Jones and the city slickers.

Musician Steve Katz famously played washboard with the Even Dozen Jug Band. His playing can be heard on the group’s legendary self-titled Elektra recording from 1964. Katz reprised his washboard playing on Played a Little Fiddle, a 2007 recording featuring Steve Katz, Stefan Grossman and Danny Kalb. Katz’s washboard approach is notable as he plays the instrument horizontally. Additionally, Katz uses fingerpicks instead of thimbles.


Jim "Dandy" Mangrum, lead singer of Southern rock band Black Oak Arkansas, is well-known for incorporating the washboard into many of the band's songs, notably "When Electricity Came to Arkansas."

Cody Dickinson, a member of hill country blues bands the North Mississippi Allstars and Country Hill Revue plays an electrified washboard on a self written track; 'Psychedelic Sex Machine'. The song is almost entirely centered around the sound of the washboard, which is picked up by a small clip on microphone. The sound is then sent through a wah-wah and other effects pedals to create a fresher, more innovative and up-to-date sound for the washboard. A frottoir is played with a stroking instrument (usually with spoon handles or a pair of bottle-openers) in each hand. In a 4-beat measure, the Frottoir will be stroked 8 to 16 times. It plays more like a Latin percussion instrument, rather than as a drum. The rhythms used are often similar to those played on Guiro. St. Blues makes the Woogie Board an electric Washboard instrument.[1]

There is a Polish traditional jazz festival and music award named "Golden Washboard".

References

  • History of washboards (laundry)

Further reading

  • Chronology of the Washboard in Music, by Chuck Wilson

See also

  • Threshing-board
  • Woogie Board
  • Washing paddle
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