World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Miguel Alemán Valdés

Miguel Alemán

46th President of Mexico
In office
December 1, 1946 – November 30, 1952
Preceded by Manuel Ávila Camacho
Succeeded by Adolfo Ruiz Cortines
Governor of Veracruz
In office
December 1, 1936 – April 6, 1939
Preceded by Ignacio Herrera Tejeda
Succeeded by Fernando Casas Alemán
Personal details
Born Miguel Alemán Valdes
(1900-09-29)September 29, 1900
Sayula, Veracruz, Mexico
Died May 14, 1983(1983-05-14) (aged 82)
Mexico City, Mexico
Nationality Mexican
Political party Institutional Revolutionary Party
Spouse(s) Beatriz Velasco (1913-1981)

Miguel Alemán Valdés (Spanish pronunciation: ; September 29, 1900[1] – May 14, 1983) served as the President of Mexico from 1946 to 1952. His administration was characterized by Mexico's rapid industrialization, but also for a high level of personal enrichment for himself and his associates.[2]

Contents

  • Life 1
  • Presidency 1946-52 2
    • Domestic policy 2.1
    • Foreign policy 2.2
    • Post-presidency 2.3
  • References 3

Life

Alemán was born in Sayula in the state of Veracruz[3] as the son of General Miguel Alemán González and Tomasa Valdés Ledezma. As a child, he was not permitted to attend school in his home town, due to his father's political beliefs (he was a former revolutionary general), but he did study in other areas instead. He attended the National Preparatory School in Mexico City from 1920 to 1925, and then went to the National School of Law until 1928, completing his law degree with his thesis on occupational diseases and accidents among workers. As a successful attorney, his first practice was in representing miners suffering from silicosis. He won two notable legal victories in defending workers against corporations. The first was in securing compensation for dependents of railroad workers who were killed in revolutionary battles; the second was to gain indemnities for miners injured at work.[4] These victories gained him great favor with Mexico's labor unions.

Meeting with Mexican president Miguel Alemán Valdés, from left to right Mario Moreno Cantinflas and María Tereza Montoya.

Representing the Party of the Mexican Revolution (an earlier name of the party later known as the PRI), he served as Senator from the state of Veracruz from 1934 to 1936. When Manlio Favio Altamirano, the governor-elect of Veracruz, was assassinated, Alemán accepted appointment as Governor of Veracruz from 1936 to 1939.[5] The appointment can be seen as a political reward from the Cárdenas administration for helping oust Plutarco Elías Calles during the intra-party struggle.[6] From 1940 to 1945, he served as Secretary of the Interior (Gobernación) under Manuel Ávila Camacho after directing Ávila's presidential campaign. As Secretary of the Interior during World War II, he dealt with Axis espionage and Sinarquistas,[7] whom some consider Mexican fascists.

Alemán was chosen as the official candidate of the party in 1945, running for President in 1946. He followed the pattern established by Lázaro Cárdenas's campaign in 1934, so that Alemán campaigned in all parts of the country, a means by which the candidate sees all areas of the republic and voters make contact with the candidate. He was the winner of the elections held on July 7 of that year, defeating former foreign minister Ezequiel Padilla. He became the first non-military candidate to win the presidency of Mexico, although he was the son of a revolutionary army general. His own skills within the party that brought him the post of Ministry of the Interior played a key role in his selection.

Presidency 1946-52

Alemán was inaugurated as President of the Republic on December 1, 1946[8] and served until 1952. He was enormously popular prior to his presidency and in his early years as president, but lost support in the waning days of his term.[9]

As president, Alemán pushed the program of industrialization in Mexico and was very friendly toward business. This stance on economic development was a key reason he was tapped to be the party's candidate rather than possible candidates with idea's similar to Cárdenas's.[10] This period of rapid growth and industrialization has been dubbed the Mexican Miracle.

Miguel Alemán

Domestic policy

Miguel Alemán Valdés in the congress

As president, Alemán pursued industrial development, increasing the extension of the nation's rail network, improving highways, and constructing a number of major schools. He put the nationalized oil industry on a better basis, making it more efficient and productive aiding other aspects of industrialization.[11] Also his administration constructed a new campus for the National Autonomous University of Mexico (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM).[12] He also worked extensively on irrigation and farming, greatly expanding the national production of rice, sugar, bananas, coffee, oats, and pineapples. In 1947 he initiated a huge project to control floods and generate hydroelectricity in the state of Oaxaca, culminating with the opening of the Miguel Alemán Dam in 1955.[13] In 1951, he oversaw completion of the diversion of the Lerma River, bringing to an end Mexico City's water supply problems.[14] He faced the appearance of foot-and-mouth disease and killed thousands of cattle in order to contain it.

During his administration, women were granted the right to vote in municipal elections during his term. In 1952 his administration elevated Baja California to state status. Also during his term, he asserted power by forced impositions of state governors.[15]

He played a major role in the development and support of the city of Acapulco as an international tourist destination. Rampant political corruption and crony capitalism would mark his administration, and this would shape the relationship of politics and big business in Mexico until the present day. His successful economic policy led to talk about the Mexican miracle, but only a small elite benefited from economic growth. His administration took an anti-communist stance and supported the United States during the Cold War.[16]

Foreign policy

During his administration the close relationship with United States, developed during World War II, continued although he refused to send Mexican troops to the Korean War.[17] He negotiated a major loan from the United States in 1947. Alemán and U.S. President Harry S. Truman rode in a parade in Washington that attracted an estimated 600,000 well-wishers.[18] Internationally, he signed peace agreements with Japan, Germany and Italy following World War II, had a hand in a truce between Pakistan and India, and worked with the United States on the issue of the braceros.

Post-presidency

In his post-presidential years, he was the leader of the right wing of the PRI.[19] He was named in 1961 the president of the national tourist commission, and he was influential in bringing the 1968 Summer Olympics to Mexico. In addition, he was the first president of the Mr. Amigo Association in 1964, which celebrates the bi-national friendliness between the United States and Mexico in the Charro Days and Sombrero Festival celebrations held in Matamoros, Tamaulipas and Brownsville, Texas.[20]

References

  1. ^ Official website of the Presideny of Mexico
  2. ^ Howard F. Cline, Mexico: Revolution to Evolution 1940-1960. New York: Oxford University Press pp. 157-58.
  3. ^ Current Biography 1946 Yearbook, p9
  4. ^ Id.
  5. ^ Lic. Miguel Alemán Valdés
  6. ^ Howard F. Cline, Mexico: Revolution to Evolution, 1940-1960. New York: Oxford University Press 1963, p. 158.
  7. ^ Cline, Mexico 1940-60 p. 158.
  8. ^ "Aleman Takes Oath Today, First Civilian Executive", San Antonio Express, Dec. 1, 1946, p12
  9. ^ Cline,Mexico 1940-60, p. 158.
  10. ^ Cline, Mexico 1940-60 p. 158.
  11. ^ Cline, Mexico 1940-60, p. 159.
  12. ^ Coerver, Don M. (2004). Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History. ABC-CLIO. p. 12. 
  13. ^ Gerardo Cruickshank (1972). "Some Problems of the Papaloapan River Basin" (PDF). Proceedings of University Seminar on Pollution and Water Resources (Colombia University). Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  14. ^ "Water, Water Everywhere", TIME Magazine, September 17, 1951
  15. ^ Cline, Mexico 1940-1960 p. 159.
  16. ^ Coerver, Don M. (2004). Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History. ABC-CLIO. p. 12. 
  17. ^ Coerver, Don M. (2004). Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History. ABC-CLIO. p. 12. 
  18. ^ "Aleman Greeted By Huge Throngs In Washington," AP Report, Joplin (Mo.) Globe, April 30, 1947, p1
  19. ^ Errol D. Jones, "Miguel Alemán Valdés" in Encyclopedia of Mexico vol. 1. p. 39. Chicago: Fitzroy and Dearborn.
  20. ^ "About Us - Mr. Amigo". Mr. Amigo Association. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Manuel Ávila Camacho
President of Mexico
1946–1952
Succeeded by
Adolfo Ruiz Cortines
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.