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Age grade

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Title: Age grade  
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Subject: Political anthropology, Anthropological categories of peoples, Social groups, Achieved status, Ascribed status
Collection: Anthropological Categories of Peoples, Social Groups
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Age grade

In social organization based on age, within a series of such categories, through which individuals pass over the course of their lives.

This is in contrast to an age set, to which individuals remain permanently attached as the set itself becomes progressively more senior.

The number of age classes, the determining ages and the terminology vary significantly between traditions. Even within a single society, a person may belong to several overlapping grades in different spheres of life, e.g. per year a different school class and yet for several years on end a child, then an adolescent, finally an adult.

In tribal societies entry into an age grade - generally gender-separated - is often marked by an initiation rite, which may be the crowning of a long and complex preparation, sometimes in retreat. After a period of some years, during which they often perform certain common activities, alone or under senior guidance, members may be initiated either collectively or individually into a more senior age grade. This progression is often accompanied by the revelation of secret knowledge. In most cultures, age grade systems, as with age sets, are the preserve of men, and it is the older men who control a society's secret knowledge, collectively or restricted to a council of elders and/or specific positions such as shaman entrusted with the preparation of initiants.

Closely related age-grade systems are common among East African Cushitic communities. Particularly, the

  1. ^ http://www.gumii.org/gada/understd.html
  2. ^ Bernardi, B. (1985). Age Class Systems: Social Institutions and Polities Based on Age. Cambridge University Press. 
  3. ^ Shepherd, J.R. (1995). Marriage and Mandatory Abortion among the 17th-century Siraya. American Anthropological Association. 

References

Many male age grade systems are associated with patrilineal kinship systems.[2] Male age grade systems associated with matrilineal kinship systems are found among the Austronesian populations of Taiwan.[3]

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