World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ambrose Madison

Article Id: WHEBN0016825594
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ambrose Madison  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: John Madison, Madisonian Model, James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation, Seven Buildings, John Payne Todd
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Ambrose Madison

Ambrose Madison
Born (1696-01-17)January 17, 1696
Orange County, Virginia
Died August 27, 1732(1732-08-27) (aged 36)
Orange County, Virginia
Children James Madison, Sr.

Ambrose Madison (January 17, 1696 - August 27, 1732) became a planter in the Piedmont of Virginia. He married Frances Taylor in 1721, daughter of James Taylor, a member of the Knights of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition across the Blue Ridge Mountains from the Tidewater. Through her father, Madison and his brother-in-law Thomas Chew were aided in acquiring 4,675 acres in 1723, in what became Orange County.[1] There he developed his tobacco plantation known as Mount Pleasant (and later as Montpelier.) The Madisons were parents of James Madison, Sr. and grandparents of President James Madison.

After Madison died of a short illness in August 1732, three slaves were convicted of poisoning him, and one was executed for the crime. It was the first time in Virginia that slaves were convicted of killing a planter.[2]

Early life and education

Ambrose was born in 1696 in Virginia to John Madison and Isabella Minor Todd. He was tutored and trained by his father to be a planter.

Marriage and family

In 1721, Madison married Frances Taylor, daughter of James Taylor, a wealthy and influential man in the colony. As a member of the Knights of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition across the Blue Ridge Mountains, Taylor later acquired 8,000 acres of land in the Piedmont. With his help, in 1723 Madison and his brother-in-law Thomas Chew acquired 4,657 acres of land in present-day Orange County, Virginia, where planters from the Tidewater were moving for new land to support tobacco cultivation.

Development of Mount Pleasant and murder

Frances and Ambrose Madison's share of land was the basis of their plantation, which they called Mount Pleasant (later to be known as Montpelier (Orange, Virginia). To clear the land to secure title, Madison bought 29 African slaves, likely Igbo, who worked under white overseers for five years before the Madisons moved to the property.[2][3] The Madison family moved to the plantation in 1732 after a house had been built and tobacco cultivation had started. They had several children, and their oldest son was James Madison, Sr., the future father of U.S. President James Madison.

Ambrose Madison died that summer at age 36 after a short illness, on August 27, 1732. The family or the sheriff believed he was poisoned by slaves, and three were charged in the case.[2] As the historian Douglas B. Chambers notes in his 2005 book on the Igbo in Virginia, historic evidence was severely limited. There is no way for historians to assess what the charges were based on, and if they arose more out of planter fears of slaves than slave actions.[2]

According to the brief court records, three African slaves were charged and convicted by the justices of the Commission of Peace of poisoning the planter. The justices apparently believed Dido and Turk, owned by the widow Frances Taylor Madison, had lesser roles and, after punishing them by whipping, returned the slaves to her for continued labor.[2] Pompey, owned by a neighboring planter, was believed the ringleader and was executed.[2] As Chambers notes, they were the first slaves convicted in Virginia of a planter's murder.[2]

Unusually, the widow Frances Taylor Madison never remarried; the tobacco plantation yielded revenue and she may have received support from her extensive Taylor family, who were also in Orange County.[4] Her eldest son James Madison, Sr. inherited the plantation when he came of age at 21 in 1744. By the 1750s, the Madison plantation was referred to as "Home House." During his tenure, Madison acquired more land, so that he eventually owned 5,000 acres.

By 1780, James Madison, Jr had become steward of Home House and called it Montpelier. It became famous after he was elected to two terms as president.

References

  1. ^ Taylor, Elizabeth Dowling. A Slave in the White House: Paul Jennings and the Madisons, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, Chapter 1
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in VirginiaChambers, Douglas B., , Oxford, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2005, pp. 5-9
  3. ^ Note: A total of 37,000 Africans arrived in Virginia from Calabar in the slave trade of the 1700s, during the period of planter expansion into the Piedmont, and 30,000 were Igbo. Chambers (2005), "Murder at Montpelier", p. 23
  4. ^ Taylor (2012), "Slave in the White House", Chapter 1

External links

  • Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in VirginiaChambers, Douglas B., , Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2005
  • Montpelier, home of James Madison
  • Madison Biography, James Madison University
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.