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Fragaria

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Fragaria

Fragaria
Fragaria vesca illustration from Atlas des plantes de France 1891, by A. Masclef
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Tribe: Potentilleae
Subtribe: Fragariinae[1]
Genus: Fragaria
L.
Species

20+ species; see text

Fragaria [2] is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, commonly known as strawberries for their edible fruits. There are more than 20 described species and many hybrids and cultivars. The most common strawberries grown commercially are cultivars of the garden strawberry, a hybrid known as Fragaria × ananassa. Strawberries have a taste that varies by cultivar, and ranges from quite sweet to rather tart. Strawberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world.

Description

Strawberries are not true berries.[3] The fleshy and edible part of the fruit is a receptacle, and the parts that are sometimes mistakenly called "seeds" are achenes.[3][4] Although it is commonly thought that strawberries get their name from straw being used as a mulch in cultivating the plants, the etymology of the word is uncertain.[5]

Classification

There are more than 20 different Fragaria species worldwide. Numbers of other species have been proposed, some of which are now recognized as subspecies.[6] Key to the classification of strawberry species is recognizing that they vary in the number of chromosomes. There are seven basic types of chromosomes that they all have in common. However, they exhibit different polyploidy. Some species are diploid, having two sets of the seven chromosomes (14 chromosomes total). Others are tetraploid (four sets, 28 chromosomes total), hexaploid (six sets, 42 chromosomes total), octoploid (eight sets, 56 chromosomes total), or decaploid (ten sets, 70 chromosomes total).

As a rough rule (with exceptions), strawberry species with more chromosomes tend to be more robust and produce larger plants with larger berries.[7]

Diploid species

Fragaria daltoniana, a species from the Himalayas
Woodland Strawberry (Fragaria vesca), a Northern Hemisphere species
Flower of Fragaria nilgerrensis, an Asian species

Tetraploid species

Pentaploid hybrids

Hexaploid species

Octoploid species and hybrids

Decaploid species and hybrids

Uncategorized Hybrids

F. var. ‘Lipstick’, red-flowered runnering ornamental, sparse small globular fruits.

Ecology

A number of species of butterflies and moths feed on strawberry plants: see list of Lepidoptera that feed on strawberry plants.

See also

References

Hogan, Sean (chief consultant), Flora (subtitle) A Gardener’s Encyclopedia, (Portland, Oregon USA) Timber Press, 2003. ISBN 0-88192-538-1.

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Fragaria".  
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ a b Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  4. ^ E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia: Fragaria virginiana.
  5. ^ "Etymology of Strawberry". snopes.com. Retrieved 2013-05-08. 
  6. ^ USDA GRIN Taxonomy Database Listing of Fragaria species
  7. ^ Darrow, George M. The Strawberry: History, Breeding and Physiology. New York. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966. online text
  8. ^ "A new species of Fragaria (Roseaceae) from Oregon". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2012-06-10. 

External links

  • GRIN Fragaria Taxonomy Database Listing of Fragaria species, from the USDA website

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