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Human Rights between the Sexes

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Title: Human Rights between the Sexes  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Leprosy stigma, Ethnic hatred, Bioethics, Diversity (politics), List of intersex people
Collection: Bioethics, Human Rights, Intersex in Non-Fiction, Intersex Rights, Medical Controversies, Medical Ethics
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Human Rights between the Sexes

Human Rights between the Sexes
Front cover of
Author Dan Christian Ghattas
Country Germany
  • English
  • German
Publisher Heinrich Böll Foundation
Publication date
18 October 2013
Media type Print (paperback)
Pages 68

Human Rights between the Sexes is an analysis of the Heinrich Böll Foundation.[1][2][3][4] The countries studied were Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, New Zealand, Serbia, South Africa, Taiwan, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine and Uruguay.[5]


  • Synopsis 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4


The report is believed to be the first comparative international analysis of the human rights of intersex people.[6] It found that intersex people are discriminated against worldwide.[7]

Ghattas states:

Ghattas found that:[6][8]

  • Genital "normalization" surgeries are widespread: "Nearly all over the world, intersex bodies are considered to be barely, or not at all, capable of being integrated into the social order. Therefore, genital surgery is performed from infancy to adolescence and adulthood in all examined countries."
  • Gonadal tissue is removed in most countries, between childhood and adolescence. Hormone treatments are administered.
  • There is minimal aftercare.
  • Birth registrations, with a sex assignment, is required in most countries, within 4 weeks of birth.
  • Intersex is treated as a taboo subject in all countries studied. Intersex people experience prejudice, often due to gender non-conforming behaviour and appearance.
  • Human rights-based activism is only recently established, and the number of NGOs small and volunteer-based.

Ghattas makes five conclusions for human rights organisations:

  1. Raise awareness of the existence of intersex individuals.
  2. Increase visibility of intersex individuals and life situations.
  3. Encourage intersex people to self-organise and voice needs.
  4. Promote collaboration with NGOs.
  5. Take account of the needs of intersex people in all areas of human rights work.

The book is published in German as Menschenrechte zwischen den Geschlechtern.[4][7][9]

The book can be downloaded for free in either English or German.

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ a b , Evangelischer Pressedienst
  8. ^
  9. ^

External links

  • Heinrich Böll site(English)
  • OII Germany site
  • Human Rights between the Sexes, Heinrich Böll Foundation
  • Menschenrechte zwischen den Geschlechtern, Heinrich Böll Stiftung
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