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Iso 3166-1:rs

Not to be confused with Republika Srpska.
This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Serbia (disambiguation).

Republic of Serbia
Република Србија
Republika Srbija
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: 
File:Serbian National Anthem instrumental.ogg
Europe (dark grey).
Capital
and largest city
Small Coat of Arms Belgrade.svg Belgrade
44°48′N 20°28′E / 44.800°N 20.467°E / 44.800; 20.467
Official languages Serbian
Ethnic groups (2011[1])
Demonym Serbian
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Tomislav Nikolić
 -  Prime Minister Ivica Dačić
 -  Speaker of Parliament Nebojša Stefanović
Legislature National Assembly
Formation
 -  Princedom 626 
 -  Kingdom / Empire 1217 / 1346 
 -  Fall of Belgrade 1521a 
 -  Last independent medieval state 1527-1528 
 -  Suzerain monarchy 1817 
 -  Recognized 1878 
 -  Unification of Serbia 1912–1918b 
 -  Independent republic 2006 
Area
 -  Total 88,361 km2 (113th)
34,116 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0.13 (including Kosovo)
Population
 -  2011 estimate 7,186,862 (excluding Kosovo)[2] (100th)
 -  Density 92.8/km2 (112th)
238/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $80.467 billion[3] (76th)
 -  Per capita $11,085 (excluding Kosovo)[3] (82nd)
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $43.7 billion[3] (79th)
 -  Per capita $6,017 (excluding Kosovo)[3] (92nd)
Gini (2011)28.2
low
HDI (2013)0.769[4]
high · 64th
Currency Serbian dinar (RSD)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Calling code +381
ISO 3166 code RS
Internet TLD
a. Fall of Smederevo in 1459, Vojvodina in 1537, when last Despot of Serbia was recognized by Holy Roman Empire.
b. Raška, Kosovo in 1912, Vojvodina, Syrmia in 1918.

Serbia Southeast Europe.

Following their settlement in the Balkans, Serbs established several states in the early Middle Ages. The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by Rome and Constantinople in 1217; the state was elevated to the Serbian Empire, in 1346. By the mid-16th century, the entire territory of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottoman Empire, at times interrupted by the Habsburgs. In the early 19th century, the Serbian revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory and pioneered the abolition of feudalism in the Balkans.[6] Following disastrous casualties in World War I, and subsequent unification of Habsburg crownlands of Vojvodina and Syrmia with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various formations until 2006, when Montenegro declared its independence. In 2008 the parliament of UNMIK-administered Kosovo declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community.

Serbia is a member of the United Nations, Council of Europe, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Partnership for Peace, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), and Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA). It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union,[7] which entered the EU accession talks procedure,[8][9] and is a militarily neutral country.[10] Serbia has a high Human Development Index and provides a universal health care system and free primary and secondary education. It is an upper-middle income economy (WB, IMF) with the service sector dominating country's economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture.

Etymology

The name "Serbia" was first mentioned as Greek: Σέρβια, meaning "land of the Serbs". There are many theories regarding the origin of the name of the Serbs. The most likely is that it is derived from the Old Slavic root *serb-, meaning "same".[11] Another proposed etymology is that of the Indo-European root *ser- "to watch over, protect", akin to Latin servare "to keep, guard, protect, preserve, observe".[12]

History

Main article: History of Serbia

Early history

Sirmium, one of 4 Roman capitals during Tetrarchy

The Neolithic Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near Belgrade and dominated the Balkans (as well as parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor) 8,500 years ago.[13][14] Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo are two important sites of these cultures, located at the banks of the Danube. Around 1000 BC, the Paleo-Balkan peoples known as Thracians, Dacians, Illyrians developed in the Balkans. Ancient Greeks expanded into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC, the northwesternmost point of Alexander the Great's empire being the town of Kale-Krševica.[15] The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the lands that eventually became Serbia in the 3rd century BC and built several fortifications, including those at Singidunum (present-day Belgrade) and Naissos (present-day Niš). The Scordisci formed their own tribal state in this area and the capital of that state was Singidunum.

The Romans conquered parts of modern-day Serbia in the 2nd century BC; in 167 BC when conquering the west, establishing the province of Illyricum, and the rest of the central part of present-day Serbia in 75 BC, establishing the province of Moesia Superior. The modern-day Srem region was conquered in 9 BC and Bačka and Banat in 106 AD after the Dacian wars. Despite its small size, contemporary Serbia extends fully or partially over several Roman provinces such as Moesia, Pannonia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia, Dacia and Macedonia. The chief towns of Upper Moesia (and wider) were: Singidunum, Viminacium, Remesiana, Naissus and especially, Sirmium which served as a Roman capital during the Tetrarchy.[16] Seventeen Roman Emperors were born in the area of modern-day Serbia, second only to contemporary Italy.[17] The most famous of these was Constantine the Great, the first Christian Emperor, who issued an edict ordering religious tolerance throughout the Empire. When the Roman Empire was divided in 395, the region remained under the eastern Byzantine Empire. After the 520s, Slavs appeared in the Byzantine Empire in great numbers.[18]

160px
Coronation of Dušan I as East Roman Emperor in 1346.

Middle Ages

The Serbs, as Slavs in the Byzantine world, lived in the so-called Slav lands, territories initially out of Byzantine control and independent.[19] In the 8th century, the Vlastimirović dynasty established the Serbian Principality. In 822, Serbia "stretched over the greater part of Dalmatia",[20] and Christianity was adopted as state religion in ca 870.[21] In the mid-10th century the state had emerged into a tribal confederation that stretched to the shores of the Adriatic Sea by the Neretva, the Sava, the Morava, and Skadar.[22] The state disintegrated after the death of the last known Vlastimirid ruler; the Byzantines annexed the region and held it for a century, until 1040 when the Serbs under the leadership of what would become the Vojislavljević dynasty revolted in Duklja, a maritime region.[23] In 1091, the Vukanović dynasty established the Serbian Grand Principality, based in Rascia.[23] The two halves were reunited in 1142.[24]

In 1166, Stefan Nemanja assumed the throne, marking the beginning of a prospering Serbia, henceforth under the rule of the Nemanjić dynasty.[25] Nemanja's son Rastko (posth. Saint Sava), gained autocephaly for the Serbian Church in 1217 and authored the oldest known constitution, and at the same time Stefan the First-Crowned established the Serbian Kingdom.[26] Medieval Serbia reached its peak during the reign of Dušan the Mighty, who took advantage of the Byzantine civil war and doubled the size of the state by conquering territories to the south and east at the expense of Byzantium, reaching as far as the Peloponnese, also being crowned Emperor of Serbs and Greeks along the way. The Battle of Kosovo in 1389 marks a turning point and is considered as a beginning of the fall of the medieval Serbian state. The magnate families Lazarević and Branković ruled the suzerain Serbian Despotate afterwards (in the 15th and 16th centuries).

After the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 and the Siege of Belgrade, the Serbian Despotate fell in 1459 following the siege of the provisional capital of Smederevo. The Smederevo Fortress is the largest medieval lowland type of fortresses in Europe. By 1455, central Serbia was completely conquered by the Ottoman Empire.[27] After repelling Ottoman attacks for over 70 years, Belgrade finally fell in 1521, opening the way for Ottoman expansion into Central Europe. Vojvodina, as a part of Habsburg Empire, resisted Ottoman rule until well into the 16th century.

Ottoman and Habsburg rule

Main articles: History of Ottoman Serbia and Great Serb Migrations

After the loss of independence to the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, Serbia briefly regained sovereignty under Jovan Nenad in the 16th century. Three Habsburg invasions and numerous rebellions constantly challenged Ottoman rule. One famous incident was the Banat Uprising in 1595, which was part of the Long War between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs.[28] The area of modern Vojvodina endured a century-long Ottoman occupation before being ceded to the Habsburg Empire at the end of the 17th century under the Treaty of Karlowitz.

Examples of Ottoman and Habsburg heritage of Serbia

In all Serb lands south of the rivers Danube and Sava, the nobility was eliminated and the peasantry was enserfed to Ottoman masters, while much of the clergy fled or were confined to the isolated monasteries. Under the Ottoman system, Serbs as the Christians were considered an inferior class of people and subjected to heavy taxes and a small portion of the Serbian populace experienced Islamisation. Ottomans abolished Serbian patriarchate (1459) but reestablished it however in 1555, providing for limited continuation of Serbian cultural traditions within the empire.[29]

As the Great Serb Migrations depopulated most of southern Serbia, the Serbs sought refuge across the Danube River in Vojvodina to the north and the Military Frontier in the west, where they were granted rights by the Austrian crown under measures such as the Statuta Wallachorum of 1630. The ecclesiastical center of the Serbs also moved northwards, to the Metropolitanate of Sremski Karlovci, as the Patriarchate of Peć was once-again abolished by the Ottomans in 1766.[30] Following several petitions, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I formally granted Serbs who wished to leave the right to their autonomous crownland.[31]

Revolution and independence

Karađorđe Petrović and Miloš Obrenović, leaders of the Serbian Revolution

The Serbian Revolution for independence from the Ottoman Empire lasted eleven years, from 1804 until 1815. The revolution comprised two separate uprisings which gained autonomy from the Ottoman Empire that eventually evolved towards full independence (1835–1867).[32][33]

During the First Serbian Uprising, led by Duke Karađorđe Petrović, Serbia was independent for almost a decade before the Ottoman army was able to reoccupy the country. Shortly after this, the Second Serbian Uprising began. Led by Miloš Obrenović, it ended in 1815 with a compromise between Serbian revolutionaries and Ottoman authorities.[34] Likewise, Serbia was one of the first nations in the Balkans to abolish feudalism.[35] The Convention of Ackerman in 1826, the Treaty of Adrianople in 1829 and finally, the Hatt-i Sharif, recognized the suzerainty of Serbia. The first Serbian Constitution was adopted on 15 February 1835.[36][37]

Following the clashes between the Ottoman army and Serbs in Belgrade in 1862, and under pressure from the Great Powers, by 1867 the last Turkish soldiers left the Principality. By enacting a new constitution without consulting the Porte, Serbian diplomats confirmed the de facto independence of the country. In 1876, Serbia declared war on the Ottoman Empire, proclaiming its unification with Bosnia. The formal independence of the country was internationally recognized at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, which formally ended the Russo-Turkish War; this treaty, however, prohibited Serbia from uniting with Bosnia by placing it under Austro-Hungarian occupation, alongside the occupation of Raška (Sandžak).[38] From 1815 to 1903, the Principality of Serbia was ruled by the House of Obrenović, except from 1842 to 1858, when it was led by Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević. In 1882, Serbia became a Kingdom, ruled by King Milan I. In 1903, following the May Overthrow, the House of Karađorđević, descendants of the revolutionary leader Karađorđe Petrović, assumed power. The 1848 revolution in Austria lead to the establishment of the autonomous territory of Serbian Vojvodina. By 1849, the region was transformed into the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar.

Balkan Wars, World War I and the First Yugoslavia

In the course of the First Balkan War in 1912, the Balkan League defeated the Ottoman Empire and conquered its European territories, which enabled territorial expansion into Raška and Kosovo. The Second Balkan War soon ensued when Bulgaria turned on its former allies, but was defeated, resulting Treaty of Bucharest. In two years, Serbia enlarged its territory by 80% and its population by 50%;[39] it also suffered high casualties on the eve of World War I, with around 20,000 dead.[40]


On 28 June 1914, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Young Bosnia organization, led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia.[41] In defense of its ally Serbia, Russia mobilized its troops, which resulted in Austria-Hungary's ally Germany declaring war on Russia. The retaliation by Austria-Hungary against Serbia activated a series of military alliances that set off a chain reaction of war declarations across the continent, leading to the outbreak of World War I within a month.[42] Serbia won the first major battles of World War I, including the Battle of Cer and Battle of Kolubara – marking the first Allied victories against the Central Powers in World War I.[43] Despite initial success, it was eventually overpowered by the Central Powers in 1915. Most of its army and some people went into exile to Greece and Corfu, where they recovered, regrouped and returned to the Macedonian front to lead a final breakthrough through enemy lines on 15 September 1918, liberating Serbia and defeating the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Bulgaria.[44] Serbia, with its campaign, was a major Balkan Entente Power[45] which contributed significantly to the Allied victory in the Balkans in November 1918, especially by helping France force Bulgaria's capitulation.[46] Serbia was classified as a minor Entente power.[47] Serbia's casualties accounted for 8% of the total Entente military deaths; 58% (243,600) soldiers of the Serbian army perished in the war.[48] The total number of casualties is placed around 700,000,[49] more than 16% of Serbia's prewar size,[42] and a majority (57%) of its overall male population.[50][51][52]


As the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed, the territory of Syrmia united with Serbia on 24 November 1918, followed by Banat, Bačka and Baranja a day later, thereby bringing the entire Vojvodina into the Serb Kingdom. On 26 November 1918, the Podgorica Assembly deposed the House of Petrović-Njegoš, and uniting Montenegro with Serbia. On 1 December 1918, Serbian Prince Regent Alexander of Serbia proclaimed the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes under King Peter I of Serbia.

King Peter was succeeded by his son, Alexander, in August 1921. Serb centralists and Croat autonomists clashed in the parliament, and most governments were fragile and short-lived. Nikola Pašić, a conservative prime minister, headed or dominated most governments until his death. King Alexander changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia and changed the internal divisions from the 33 oblasts to nine new banovinas. The effect of Alexander's dictatorship was to further alienate the non-Serbs from the idea of unity.[53] Alexander was assassinated in Marseille, during an official visit in 1934 by Vlado Chernozemski, member of the IMRO. Alexander was succeeded by his eleven-year-old son Peter II and a regency council headed by his cousin, Prince Paul. Prime Minister Dragiša Cvetković, negotiated a solution to the concerns of the Croatian populace with Vladko Maček. In August 1939 the Cvetković–Maček Agreement established an autonomous Banate of Croatia.

World War II and the Second Yugoslavia


In 1941, in spite of Yugoslav attempts to remain neutral in the war, the Axis powers invaded Yugoslavia. The territory of modern Serbia was divided between Hungary, Bulgaria, Independent Croatia and Italy (greater Albania and Montenegro), while the remaining part of Serbia was placed under German Military administration, with a Serbian puppet governments led by Milan Aćimović and Milan Nedić. The occupied territory was the scene of a civil war between royalist Chetniks commanded by Draža Mihailović and communist partisans commanded by Josip Broz Tito. Against these forces were arrayed Axis auxiliary units of the Serbian Volunteer Corps and the Serbian State Guard. Draginac and Loznica massacre of 2,950 villagers in Western Serbia in 1941 was the first large execution of civilians in occupied Serbia by Nazis, with Kragujevac massacre and Novi Sad Raid of Jews and Serbs by Hungarian fascists being the most notorious, with over 3,000 victims in each case.[54][55][56] After one year of occupation, around 16,000 Serbian Jews were murdered in the area, or around 90% of its pre-war Jewish population. Many concentration camps were established across the area. Banjica concentration camp was the largest concentration camp, with primary victims being Serbian Jews, Roma, and Serb political prisoners.[57]


The Axis puppet state of the Independent State of Croatia committed large-scale persecution and genocide of Serbs, Jews, and Roma.[58] The estimate of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum indicates that between 320,000 and 340,000 ethnic Serb residents of Croatia, Bosnia and northern Serbia were murdered during the Ustaše genocide campaign;[59] same figures are supported by the Jewish Virtual Library.[60] Official Yugoslav sources used to estimate more than 700,000 victims, mostly Serbs.[61] The Jasenovac memorial so far lists 82,085 names killed at the this concentration camp alone,[62] out of around 100,000 estimated victims (75% of whom were of Serbian origin).[63] Out of roughly 1 million casualties in all of Yugoslavia up until 1944,[64][65] around 250,000 were citizens of Serbia of different ethnicities.[66] The Republic of Užice was a short-lived liberated territory established by the Partisans and the first liberated territory in World War II Europe, organized as a military mini-state that existed in the autumn of 1941 in the west of occupied Serbia. By late 1944, the Belgrade Offensive swung in favour of the partisans in the civil war; the partisans subsequently gained control of Yugoslavia.[67] Following the Belgrade Offensive, the Syrmian Front was the last sequence of the World War Two in Serbia. Between 60,000 and 70,000 people were killed in Serbia during the communist takeover.[68]

The victory of the Communist Partisans resulted in the abolition of the monarchy and a subsequent orchestrated constitutional referendum. A single-party state was soon established in Yugoslavia by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. All opposition was repressed and people deemed to be promoting opposition to socialism or promoting separatism were imprisoned or executed for sedition. Serbia became a constituent republic within the SFRY known as the Socialist Republic of Serbia, and had a republic-branch of the federal communist party, the League of Communists of Serbia. Serbia's most powerful and influential politician in Tito-era Yugoslavia was Aleksandar Ranković, one of the "big four" Yugoslav leaders, alongside Tito, Edvard Kardelj, and Milovan Đilas.[69] Ranković was later removed from the office because of the disagreements regarding Kosovo’s nomenklatura and the unity of Serbia.[69] Ranković's dismissal was highly unpopular amongst Serbs.[70] Pro-decentralization reformers in Yugoslavia succeeded in the late 1960s in attaining substantial decentralization of powers, creating substantial autonomy in Kosovo and Vojvodina, and recognizing a Yugoslav Muslim nationality.[70] As a result of these reforms, there was a massive overhaul of Kosovo's nomenklatura and police, that shifted from being Serb-dominated to ethnic Albanian-dominated through firing Serbs in large scale.[70] Further concessions were made to the ethnic Albanians of Kosovo in response to unrest, including the creation of the University of Pristina as an Albanian language institution.[70] These changes created widespread fear amongst Serbs of being treated as second-class citizens.[71]

Breakup of Yugoslavia and political transition

In 1989, Slobodan Milošević rose to power in Serbia. Milošević promised reduction of powers for the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina, where his allies subsequently overtook the power, during the Anti-bureaucratic revolution.[72] This ignited tensions with the communist leadership of the other republics, and awoke nationalism across the country, that eventually resulted in the Breakup of Yugoslavia, with Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia declaring independence.[73] Serbia and Montenegro remained together as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY).


Fueled by ethnic tensions, the Yugoslav Wars erupted, with the most severe conflicts taking place in Croatia and Bosnia, where ethnic Serb populations opposed independence from Yugoslavia. The FRY remained outside the conflicts, but provided logistic, military and financial support to Serb forces in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In response, the UN imposed sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in May 1992,[74] which led to political isolation and the collapse of the economy. Multiparty democracy was introduced in Serbia in 1990, officially dismantling the single-party system. Critics of Milošević claimed that the government continued to be authoritarian despite constitutional changes, as Milošević maintained strong political influence over the state media and security apparatus.[75][76] When the ruling SPS refused to accept its defeat in municipal elections in 1996, Serbians engaged in large protests against the government. Between 1998 and 1999, peace was broken again, when the situation in Kosovo worsened with continued clashes between Yugoslav security forces and the KLA. The confrontations led to the Kosovo War.[77]

In September 2000, opposition parties accused Milošević of electoral fraud. A campaign of civil resistance followed, led by the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS), a broad coalition of anti-Milošević parties. This culminated on 5 October when half a million people from all over the country congregated in Belgrade, compelling Milošević to concede defeat.[78] The fall of Milošević ended Yugoslavia's international isolation. Milošević was sent to the ICTY. The DOS announced that FR Yugoslavia would seek to join the European Union. In 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed Serbia and Montenegro; the EU opened negotiations with the country for the Stabilization and Association Agreement. Serbia's political climate has remained tense and in 2003, the prime minister Zoran Đinđić was assassinated as result of a plot originating from circles of organized crime and former security officials.

On 21 May 2006, Montenegro held a referendum to determine whether to end its union with Serbia. The results showed 55.4% of voters in favor of independence, which was just above the 55% required by the referendum. On 5 June 2006, the National Assembly of Serbia declared Serbia to be the legal successor to the former state union.[79] The province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008. Serbia immediately condemned the declaration and continues to deny any statehood to Kosovo. The declaration has sparked varied responses from the international community, some welcoming it, while others condemn the unilateral move.[80] Status neutral talks between Serbia and Kosovo-Albanian authorities are held in Brussels, mediated by the EU.

In April 2008 Serbia was invited to join the intensified dialogue programme with NATO despite the diplomatic rift with the alliance over Kosovo.[81] Serbia officially applied for membership in the European Union on 22 December 2009,[82] and received candidate status on 1 March 2012[7][83] while the EU accession negotiations are expected to commence in January 2014.[84]

Geography

Main article: Geography of Serbia

Located at the crossroads between Central and Southern Europe, Serbia is found in the Balkan peninsula and the Pannonian Plain. Serbia lies between latitudes 41° and 47° N, and longitudes 18° and 23° E. The country covers a total of 88,361 km² (including Kosovo), which places it at 113th place in the world. Its total border length amounts to 2,027 km (Albania 115 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Macedonia 221 km, Montenegro 203 km and Romania 476 km).[85] All of Serbia's border with Albania, and parts of the borders with Macedonia, Montenegro, are under control of the UNMIK.

The Pannonian Plain covers the northern third of the country (mainly Vojvodina and Mačva) while the easternmost tip of Serbia extends into the Wallachian Plain. The terrain of central part of the country, with the region of Šumadija at its heart, consists chiefly of hills traversed by the rivers. Mountains dominate the southern third of Serbia. Dinaric Alps stretch in the west and the southwest following the flow of the rivers Drina and Ibar. Carpathian Mountains and Balkan Mountains stretch in north–south direction in the eastern Serbia.[86] Ancient mountains in the southeast corner of the country belong to Rilo-Rhodope Mountain system. Elevation ranges from the Midžor peak of the Balkan Mountains at 2,169 m (highest peak in Serbia, excluding Kosovo) to the lowest point of just 17 m near Danube river at Prahovo.[87]

Climate

Main article: Climate of Serbia

The climate of Serbia is under the influences of the landmass of Eurasia and Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. With mean January temperatures around 0 °C (32 °F), and mean July temperatures around 22 °C (72 °F), it can be classified as transitional. In the north, the climate is more continental, with cold winters, and hot, humid summers along with well distributed rainfall patterns. In the south, summers and autumns are drier, and winters are relatively cold, with heavy inland snowfall in the mountains. Differences in elevation, proximity to the Adriatic Sea and large river basins, as well as exposure to the winds account for climate variations.[88] Southern Serbia is subject to Mediterranean influences.[89] However, the Dinaric Alps and other mountain ranges contribute to the cooling of most of the warm air masses. Winters are quite harsh in the Pešter plateau, because of the mountains which encircle it.[90] One of the climatic features of Serbia is Košava, a cold and very squally southeastern wind which starts in the Carpathian Mountains and follows the Danube northwest through the Iron Gate where it gains a jet effect and continues to Belgrade and can spread as far south as Niš.[91]

The average annual air temperature for the period 1961–90 for the area with an altitude of up to 300 m (984 ft) is 10.9 °C (51.6 °F). The areas with an altitude of 300 to 500 m (984 to 1,640 ft) have an average annual temperature of around 10.0 °C (50.0 °F), and over 1,000 m (3,281 ft) of altitude around 6.0 °C (42.8 °F).[92] The lowest recorded temperature in Serbia was −39.5 °C (−39.1 °F) on 13 January 1985, Karajukića Bunari in Pešter, and the highest was 44.9 °C or 112.8 °F, on 24 July 2007, recorded in Smederevska Palanka.[93]

Hydrology


Almost all of Serbia's rivers drain to the Black Sea, by way of the Danube river. The Danube, second largest European river, passes through Serbia with 21% of its overall length and represents country's largest source of fresh water. It is joined by its biggest tributaries, the Great Morava (longest river entirely in Serbia with 493 km of length), Sava and Tisza rivers.[94] One notable exception is the Pčinja which flows into the Aegean.

Due to the configuration of the terrain, natural lakes are sparse and small; most of them are located in Vojvodina, like the glacial lake Palić (covering 6 square kilometers, country's largest natural lake) or numerous oxbow lakes along river flows (like Zasavica and Carska Bara). However, there are numerous artificial lakes, mostly due to hydroelectric dams, the biggest being Đerdap on Danube with 163 square kilometers on the Serbian side (a total area of 253 square kilometers is shared with Romania) as well as the deepest (with maximum depth of 92 meters); Perućac on the Drina, and Vlasina. The largest waterfall, Jelovarnik, located in Kopaonik, is 71 meters high.[95]

Abundance of relatively unpolluted surface waters and numerous underground natural and mineral water sources of high water quality presents a chance for export and economy improvement; however, more extensive exploitation and production of bottled water began only recently.

River Km in Serbia Total length
(km)
Number of countries
1 Danube 588 2783 9
2 Great Morava 493 493 1
3 Ibar 250 272 2
4 Drina 220 346 3
5 Sava 206 945 4
6 Timok 202 202 1
7 Tisa 168 966 4
8 Nišava 151 218 2
9 Tamiš 118 359 2
10 Begej 75 244 2

Environment

With 29.1% of its territory covered by forest, Serbia is considered to be a middle-forested country. Forest coverage is, when compared on a global scale, similar to world forest coverage which accounts for 30%, but it is somewhat lower than the European average of 35%. The total forest area in Serbia is 2,252,000 hа (1,194,000 hа or 53% are state-owned, and 1,058,387 hа or 47% are privately owned) or 0.3 ha per inhabitant.[96] The most common trees are oak, beech, pines and firs.

Serbia is a country of rich ecosystem and species diversity - covering only 1.9% of the whole European territory Serbia is home to 39% of European vascular flora, 51% of European fish fauna, 40% of European reptile and amphibian fauna, 74% of European bird fauna, 67% European mammal fauna.[97] It's abundance of mountains and rivers make it an ideal environment for a variety of animals, many of which are protected including wolves, lynx, bears, foxes and stags. Mountain of Tara in western Serbia is one of the last regions in Europe where bears can still live in absolute freedom.[98] Serbia is also home to about 380 species of bird, including the imperial eagle, the great bustard, the corn crake and the Madagascar pochard. In Carska Bara, there are over 300 bird species on just a few square kilometers.[99] Uvac Gorge is considered one of the last habitats of White-head vulture in Europe.[100]

There are 377 protected areas of Serbia, encompassing 4,947 square kilometers or 6.4% of the country. The "Spatial plan of the Republic of Serbia" states that the total protected area should be increased to 12% by 2021.[97] Those protected areas include 5 national parks (Đerdap, Tara, Kopaonik, Fruška Gora and Šar Mountain), 15 nature parks, 15 "landscapes of outstanding features", 61 nature reserves, and 281 natural monuments.[101]

Air pollution is a significant problem in Bor area, due to work of large copper mining and smelting complex, and Pančevo where oil and petrochemical industry is based.[102] Some cities suffer from water supply problems, due to mismanagement and low investments in the past, as well as water pollution (like the pollution of the Ibar River from the Trepča zinc-lead combinate, affecting the city of Kraljevo, or the presence of natural arsenic in underground waters in Zrenjanin). Poor waste management has been identified as one of the most important environmental problems in Serbia and the recycling is a fledgling activity, with only 15% of its waste being turned back for reuse.[103] The 1999 NATO bombing caused serious damage to the environment, with several thousand tons of toxic chemicals stored in targeted factories and refineries released into the soil and water basins.

Politics


Serbia is a parliamentary republic. Government in Serbia is divided into legislative, executive and judiciary branches.

Serbia had one of the first modern constitutions in Europe, 1835 Constitution (known as "Sretenje Constitution"), which was at the time considered among the most progressive and liberal constitutions in the world. Since then it has adopted 10 different constitutions.[104] The current constitution was adopted on 8 November 2006 in the aftermath of Montenegro independence referendum which by consequence renewed the independece of Serbia itself.[105] The Constitutional Court rules on matters regarding the Constitution.

The President of the Republic (Predsednik Republike) is the head of state, and elected by popular vote to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of two terms. In addition to being the commander in chief of the armed forces, the president has the procedural duty of appointing the prime minister with the consent of the parliament, and has some influence on foreign policy.[106] Tomislav Nikolić is the current president following the 2012 presidential election.[107] Seat of the presidency is Novi Dvor.

The Government (Vlada) is composed of the prime minister and cabinet ministers. The Government is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies. The current prime minister is Ivica Dačić of the Socialist Party of Serbia.[108]

The National Assembly (Narodna skupština) is a unicameral legislative body. The National Assembly has the power to enact laws, approve the budget, schedule presidential elections, select and dismiss the Prime Minister and other ministers, declare war, and ratify international treaties and agreements.[109] It is composed of 250 proportionally elected members who serve four-year terms. The largest political parties in Serbia are the centre-right Serbian Progressive Party, centre-left Democratic Party and leftist Socialist Party of Serbia.[110]

Serbia has a three-tiered judicial system, made up of the Supreme Court of Cassation as the court of the last resort, Court of Appeal as the appellate instance, and Basic and High courts as the general jurisdictions at first instance. Courts of special jurisdictions are the Administrative Court, commercial courts (including the Commercial Court of Appeal at second instance) and misdemeanour courts (including High Misdemeanor Court at second instance).[111] The judiciary is overseen by the Ministry of Justice. Serbia has a typical civil law legal system.

Law enforcement is the responsibility of the Serbian Police, which is subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. Serbian Police fields 26,527 uniformed officers.[112] National security and counterintelligence are the responsibility of the Security Information Agency (BIA).[113]

Administrative divisions


Serbia is a unitary state[114] composed of regions (including 2 autonomous provinces), districts, and municipalities/cities.

Serbia is divided into 5 regions (regioni): Vojvodina, Belgrade, Šumadija and Western Serbia, Southern and Eastern Serbia and Kosovo and Metohija.[115][116] In addition, the regions of Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija are also autonomous provinces (autonomne pokrajine).[117] Belgrade is a separate territorial unit established by the Constitution and law,[116] while Šumadija and Western Serbia and Southern and Eastern Serbia are directly subordinated to national authorities. Prior to 2010, Serbia used to be composed of the provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo, and Central Serbia, which never had its own regional authority.

Serbia (excluding Kosovo) is organized into 25 districts (okruzi). There are 9 in Southern and Eastern Serbia, 8 in Šumadija and Western Serbia and 7 in Vojvodina, while Belgrade constitutes a district of its own.[118] They are regional centers of state authority, but have no powers of their own; they present purely administrative divisions.

Serbia (excluding Kosovo) is further organized into 138 municipalities (opštine) and 23 cities (gradovi), which form the basic units of local self-government.[117] There are 52 municipalities located in Šumadija and Western Serbia, 47 in Southern and Eastern Serbia and 39 in Vojvodina. Of the 23 cities, 10 are in Šumadija and Western Serbia, 6 in Southern and Eastern Serbia, 6 in Vojvodina, and 1 (Belgrade) has the status of separate territorial unit.[117]

Since 1999, the territory of Kosovo has officially been administered by UNMIK as per UNSC Resolution 1244 of the United Nations. The Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG), has an assembly and a president. On 17 February 2008, representatives of the people of Kosovo, acting outside the UNMIK's PISG framework (not representing the Assembly of Kosovo or any other of these institutions),[119] declared that Kosovo is independent from Serbia. Serbia does not recognize the declaration and considers the act illegal and illegitimate.[120]

Foreign relations


Serbia has established diplomatic relations with 182 UN member states, the Holy See, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, and the European Union.[121] Foreign relations are conducted through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Serbia has a network of 65 embassies and 23 consulates internationally.[122] There are 65 foreign embassies, 5 consulates and 4 liaison offices in Serbia.[123]

Serbian foreign policy is focused on achieving the strategic goal of becoming a member state of the European Union (EU). Serbia started the process of joining the EU by signing of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement on 29 April 2008 and officially applied for membership in the European Union on 22 December 2009.[124] Serbia was placed on the White Schengen List on 19 December 2009, removing EU visa-restrictions for Serbian citizens.[125] Serbia received a full candidate status on 1 March 2012 and is set to start accession talks in January 2014.[8][126]

The province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008. The declaration of independence has sparked varied responses from the international community, some welcoming it, while others condemn the unilateral move.[80] Serbia has consistently recalled its ambassadors from states which have recognized Kosovo, in protest.[127]

Military

The Serbian Armed Forces are subordinate to the Ministry of Defence, and are composed of the Army and the Air Force. Although a landlocked country, Serbia operates a river flotilla which patrols on the Danube, Sava, and Tisza rivers. The Serbian Chief of the General Staff reports to the Defence Minister. The Chief of Staff is appointed by the President, who is the Commander-in-Chief.[106] As of 2012, Serbia defence budget amounts to $612 million or an estimated 1.6% of the country's GDP.[128]


Traditionally relying on a large number of conscripts, Serbian Armed Forces went through a period of downsizing, restructuring and professionalisation. Conscription was abolished on 1 January 2011.[129] Serbian Armed Forces have 28,000 active troops,[130] supplemented by the "active reserve" which numbers 20,000 members and "passive reserve" with about 170,000.[131][132]

Serbia participates in the NATO Partnership for Peace program, but has shown no intention of joining NATO, due to significant popular rejection, largely derived from the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999.[133] The country also signed the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. The Serbian Armed Forces take part in several multinational peacekeeping missions, including deployments in Lebanon, Cyprus, Ivory Coast, and Liberia.[134]

Serbia is a large producer and exporter of military equipment in the region. Defence exports totaled around $250 million in 2011.[135] Serbia exports across the world, notably to the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, and North America.[136] The defence industry has seen significant growth over the years and it continues to grow on a yearly basis.[137][138]

Demographics

Ethnic composition (2011)
Serbs
  
83.3%
Hungarians
  
3.5%
Roma
  
2.0%
Bosniaks
  
2.0%
Croats
  
0.8%
Slovaks
  
0.7%
Other
  
7.7%

As of 2011 census, Serbia (excluding Kosovo) has a total population of 7,186,862 and the overall population density is medium as it stands at 92.8 inhabitants per square kilometer.[139] The census was not conducted in Kosovo which held its own census that numbered their total population at 1,739,825,[140] excluding Serb-inhabited North Kosovo, as Serbs from that area (about 50,000) boycotted the census.

Serbia is in an acute demographic crisis since the beginning of the 1990s, as death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate. It has one of the most negative population growth rates in the world, ranking 225th out of 233 countries and territories overall.[141] The total fertility rate of 1.44 children per mother, is one of the lowest in the world.[142] Serbia has a comparatively old overall population (among the 10 oldest in the world), with the average age of 42.2 years.[143] The life expectancy in Serbia at birth is 73.9 years.[144] A fifth of all households consist of only one person and just one-fourth of 4 and more persons.[145]

During the 1990s, Serbia used to have the largest refugee population in Europe.[146] Refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Serbia formed between 7% and 7.5% of its population – about half a million refugees sought refuge in the country following the series of Yugoslav wars, mainly from Croatia (and to a lesser extent from Bosnia and Herzegovina) and the IDPs from Kosovo.[147] Meanwhile, it is estimated that 300,000 people left Serbia during the 1990s, 20% of which had a higher education.[148][149]

Serbs with 5,988,150 are the largest ethnic group in Serbia, representing 83.3% of the total population (excluding Kosovo). With a population of 253,899, Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority in Serbia, concentrated predominately in northern Vojvodina and representing 3.5% of the country's population (13% in Vojvodina). Roma population stands at 147,604 according to the 2011 census but unofficial estimates place their actual number between 400,000 and 500,000.[150] Bosniaks with 145,278 are third largest ethnic minority mainly inhabiting Raška region in southwestern part of the country. Other minority groups include Croats, Slovaks, Albanians, Montenegrins, Vlachs, Romanians, Macedonians and Bulgarians. The Chinese, estimated at about 15,000, are the only significant immigrant minority.[151][152]

Largest cities

Majority of population, or 59.7%, reside in urban areas and some 16.1% in Belgrade urban area alone.[153] Serbia has only one city with more than a million inhabitants and 3 more with more than 100,000 inhabitants.

Largest cities or towns of Serbia


Belgrade
Novi Sad
Niš

Rank City name District Urban population Municipal population

Kragujevac
Subotica
Zrenjanin

1 Belgrade City of Belgrade 1,166,763 1,659,440
2 Novi Sad South Bačka District 231,798 341,625
3 Niš Nišava District 183,164 260,237
4 Kragujevac Šumadija District 150,835 179,417
5 Subotica North Bačka District 97,910 141,554
6 Zrenjanin Central Banat District 76,511 123,362
7 Pančevo South Banat District 76,203 123,414
8 Čačak Moravica District 73,331 115,337
9 Novi Pazar Raška District 66,527 100,410
10 Kraljevo Raška District 64,175 125,488
11 Smederevo Podunavlje District 64,175 108,209
12 Leskovac Jablanica District 60,288 144,206
13 Valjevo Kolubara District 58,932 90,301
14 Kruševac Rasina District 58,745 128,752
15 Vranje Pčinja District 55,138 82,782
16 Šabac Mačva District 53,919 115,884
17 Užice Zlatibor District 52,646 78,018
18 Sombor West Bačka District 47,623 85,569
19 Požarevac Braničevo District 44,183 74,070
20 Pirot Pirot District 38,785 57,911
Source: 2011 census

Religion


The Constitution of Serbia defines it as a secular state with guaranteed religious freedom. Serbia is one of religiously diverse European countries, with an Eastern Orthodox majority, and a Catholic and Islamic minority, among other smaller confessions.[154]

Orthodox Christians with 6,079,396 comprise 84.5% of country's population. The Serbian Orthodox Church is the largest and traditional church of the country, adherents of which are overwhelmingly Serbs. Other Orthodox Christian communities in Serbia include Montenegrins, Romanians, Vlachs, Macedonians and Bulgarians.

There are 356,957 Roman Catholics in Serbia, roughly 5% of the population, mostly in Vojvodina (especially its northern part) which is home to minority ethnic groups such as Hungarians, Croats, Bunjevci, as well as to some Slovaks and Czechs.[154] Protestantism accounts for about 1% of the country's population, chiefly among Slovaks in Vojvodina as well as among Reformist Hungarians.

Muslims, with 222,282 or 3% of population, form third largest religious group. Islam has a strong historic following in the southern regions of Serbia, primarily in southern Raška. Bosniaks are the largest Islamic community in Serbia; estimates are that some third of country's Roma people are Muslim.

There are 1,185 Jewish Serbians. A number of Jews from Spain settled in Serbia after the Inquisition. They were well-accepted and in the ensuing generations, the majority assimilated or became secular. Later on, the wars that ravaged the region resulted in a great part of the Jewish Serbian population emigrating from the region. Today, the Belgrade Synagogue is the only functioning synagogue, saved by the local population during World War II from destruction at the hands of the Nazis.

Language

The official language is Serbian, member of the South Slavic group of languages, and is native to 88% of the population.[155] Serbian is the only European language with active digraphia, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. Serbian Cyrillic was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, who created the alphabet on phonemic principles, the Cyrillic itself has its origins in Cyril and Methodius' transformation of the Greek script in the 9th century.

Recognized minority languages are: Hungarian, Slovak, Albanian, Romanian, Bulgarian and Rusyn as well as Bosnian and Croatian which are completely mutual intelligible with Serbian. All these languages are in official use in municipalities or cities where more than a 15% of population consists of national minority.[156] In Vojvodina, provincial administration uses, besides Serbian, five other languages (Hungarian, Slovak, Croatian, Romanian and Rusyn).

Economy

Main article: Economy of Serbia


Serbia has an emerging market economy in upper-middle income range.[157] According to IMF, Serbian nominal GDP in 2013 is officially estimated at $43.7 billion or $6,017 per capita while purchasing power parity GDP was $80.467 billion or $11,085 per capita.[158] The economy is dominated by services which accounts for 63.8% of GDP, followed by industry with 23.5% of GDP, and agriculture at 12.7% of GDP.[159] The official currency of Serbia is Serbian dinar (ISO code: RSD), and the central bank is National Bank of Serbia.

The economy has been affected by the late-2000s financial crisis. After eight years of strong economic growth (average of 4.45% per year), Serbia entered the recession in 2009 with negative growth of -3% and again in 2012 with -1.7%.[160] As the government was fighting effects of crisis the public debt has doubled in 4 years: from pre-crisis level of 29.2% to 61.5% of GDP.[161]

Labor force is 2.96 million, of whom 58.6% per cent are employed in services sector, 21.9% are employed in the agriculture and 19.5% are employed in industry.[162] The average monthly net salary in August 2013 was 44,770 dinars (US$ 528). The unemployment remains an acute problem, with rate of 24.1% as of April 2013.[163]


Since 2000, Serbia has attracted over $25 billion USD in foreign direct investment (FDI).[164] Blue-chip corporations making investments in Serbia include: FIAT, Siemens, Bosch, Philip Morris, Michelin, Coca-Cola, Carlsberg and others.[165][166] In the energy sector, Russian energy giants, Gazprom and Lukoil have made large investments.[167]

Serbia has an unfavorable trade balance, with imports exceeding the imports by a third. Serbia's exports however have been recording a steady growth over the last couple of years and are expected to reach a record-level of $14.5 billion in 2013.[168][168] Country has free-trade agreements with the EFTA and CEFTA, a preferential trade regime with the European Union, a Generalized System of Preferences with the United States, and individual free-trade agreements with Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Turkey.[169]

Agriculture

Main article: Agriculture in Serbia


Serbia has very favourable natural conditions (land and climate) for varied agricultural production. It has 5,056,000 ha of agricultural land (0.7 ha per capita), out of which 3,294,000 ha is arable land (0.45 ha per capita).[170] In 2012, Serbia exported agricultural and food products worth $2.5 billion, and the export-import ratio was about 190%.[171] Agricultural exports constitute one-fifth of all Serbia’s sales on the world market. Serbia is one of the largest provider of frozen fruit to the EU (largest to the French market, and 2nd largest to the German market).[172] Agricultural production is most prominent in Vojvodina on the fertile Pannonian Plain. Other agricultural regions include Mačva, Pomoravlje, Tamnava, Rasina, and Jablanica.[173]

In the structure of the agricultural production 70% is from the crop field production, and 30% is from the livestock production.[173] Serbia is world's second largest producer of plums (582,485 tons; second to China), third largest of raspberries (89,602 tons, third to Russia and Poland), it is also significant producer of maize (6.48 million tons, ranked 32nd in the world) and wheat (2.07 million tpns, ranked 35th in the world).[174][175] Other important agricultural products are: sunflower, sugar beet, soya bean, potato, apple, pork meat, beef, poultry meat and dairy.

There are 56,000 ha of vineyards in Serbia, producing about 230 million litres of wine annually.[170][176] Most famous viticulture regions are: Vršac area, Župa, Fruška Gora, Topola area.

Industry


The industry is the economy sector which was hardest hit by the UN sanctions and trade embargo and NATO bombing during the 1990s and transition to market economy during the 2000s.[177] The industrial output saw dramatic downsizing: in 2013 it is expected to be only a half of that of 1989.[178] Main industrial sectors include: automotive, mining, non-ferous metals, food-processing, electronics, pharmaceuticals, clothes.

Automotive industry (with FIAT as a forebearer) is dominated by cluster located in Kragujevac and its vicinity, and contributes to country's exports with about $2 billion.[179] Serbia’s mining industry is comparatively strong: country is world's 18th largest producer of coal (7th in the Europe) extracted from large deposits in Kolubara and Kostolac basins; it is also world's 23rd largest (3rd in Europe) producer of copper which is extracted by RTB Bor, a large domestic copper mining company; significant gold extraction is developed around Majdanpek. Food industry is well known both regionally and internationally and is one of the strong points of the economy.[180] Some of the international brand-names established production in Serbia: PepsiCo and Nestle in food-processing sector; Coca-Cola (Belgrade), Heineken (Novi Sad) and Carlsberg (Bačka Palanka) in beverage industry; Nordzucker in sugar industry.[172] Clothing and textile industry has seen a surge in recent years with significant greenfeild investments by foreign companies: Benneton in Niš, Geox in Vranje, Calzedonia in Sombor, Falke in Leskovac and others. Serbia's electronics industry had its peak in the 1980s and the industry today is only a third of what it was back then, but has witnessed a something of revival in last decade with investments of companies such as Siemens (wind turbines) in Subotica, Panasonic (lighting devices) in Svilajnac, and Gorenje (electrical home appliances) in Valjevo.[181] The pharmaceutical industry in Serbia comprises 20 manufacturers of generic drugs, of which German STADA in Vršac and domestic Galenika based in Belgrade, account for 80% of production volume. Domestic production meets over 60% of the local demand.[182]

Energy

Main article: Energy in Serbia

Energy sector is one of the largest and most important sectors to the country's economy. Serbia is net exporter of electricity and importer of key fuels (such as oil and gas).

Serbia has abundance of one natural fuel (coal) and relatively significant but not sufficient of the others (oil and gas). Serbia's proven reserves of 5.5 billion tons of coal lignite are 4th largest in the world (second in Europe, after Germany).[183][184] Coal is found in 2 large deposits: Kolubara (4 billion tons of reserves) and Kostolac (1.5 billion tons).[183] Despite being small on a world scale, Serbia's oil and gas resources (77.4 million tons of oil equivalent and 48.1 billion cubic meters, respectively) have a certain regional importance since they are largest in the region of former Yugoslavia as well as the Balkans (excluding Romania).[185] Almost 90% of the discovered oil and gas are to be found in Banat and those oil and gas fields are by size among the largest in the Pannonian basin but the average on a European scale.[186]


The production of electricity in 2012 in Serbia was 36.06 billion kilowatt-hours (KWh), while the final electricity consumption amounted to 35.5 billion kilowatt-hours (KWh).[187] Most of the electricity produced comes from thermal-power plants (72.7% of all electricity) and to a lesser degree from hydroelectric-power plants (27.3%).[188] There are 6 lignite-operated thermal-power plants with an installed power of 3,936 MW; largest of which are 1,502 MW-Nikola Tesla 1 and 1,160 MW-Nikola Tesla 2, both in Obrenovac.[189] Total installed power of 9 hydroelectric-power plants is 2,831 MW, largest of which is Đerdap 1 with capacity of 1,026 MW.[190] In addition to this, there are mazute and gas-operated thermal-power plants with an installed power of 353 MW.[191] The entire production of electricity is concentrated in Elektroprivreda Srbije (EPS), public electric-utility power company.

The current oil production in Serbia amounts to over 1.1 million tons of oil equivalent[192] and satisfies some 43% of country's needs while the rest is imported.[193] National petrol company, Naftna Industrija Srbije (NIS), was acquired in 2008 by Gazprom Neft. The company has completed $700 million modernisation of oil-refinery in Pančevo (capacity of 4.8 million tons) and is currently in midst of converting oil refinery in Novi Sad into lubricants-only refinery. It also operates network of 334 filling stations in Serbia (74% of domestic market) and plans to expand its network with 100 more station in Bulgaria, Romania and Bosnia and Herzegovina by the end of 2014.[194][195] There are 155 kilometers of crude oil pipelines connecting Pančevo and Novi Sad refineries as a part of trans-national Adria oil pipeline.[196]

Serbia is heavily dependent on foreign sources of natural gas, with only 17% coming from domestic production (totalling 491 million cubic meters in 2012) and the rest is imported, mainly from Russia (via gas pipelines that run through Ukraine and Hungary).[193] Srbijagas, public gas company, operates the natural gas transportation system which comprise 3,177 kilometers of trunk and regional natural gas pipelines and a 450 million cubic meter underground gas storage facility at Banatski Dvor.[197] Major European transit gas pipeline, South Stream pipeline, will pass through Serbia in length of 422 kilometers and will have capacity of 40.5 billion cubic meters.[198] Start of the construction of Serbian portion of the pipeline is scheduled for the end of 2013 and will be financed with $1.7 billion by the Russian energy giant Gazprom.[199]

Transport

Main article: Transport in Serbia


Serbia has a strategic transportation location since country's backbone, Morava valley, represents by far the easiest route of land travel from continental Europe to Asia Minor and the Near East.


Serbian road network carries the bulk of traffic in the country. Total length of roads is 40,845 km, of which 1,372 km are "class 1a-state roads" (i.e. major national roads, including some 623 km of motorways and 8 km of expressways); 4,153 km are "class 1b-state roads" (other national roads, including some 27 km of expressways); 11,540 km are "class 2-state roads" (regional roads) and 23,780 km are "municipal roads" (local roads).[200][201] The road network, except for the most of class 1a roads, are of comparatively lower quality to the Western European standards because of lack of financial resources for their maintenance in the last 20 years. There are currently 241 kilometers of motorways (autoputevi) under construction which are all due to be completed by 2016: 66 km-long section of the State Road 1 (from south of Leskovac to Bujanovac), 102 km-long segment of State Road 2 (between Obrenovac and Čačak), and 83 kilometers on the State Road 5 (east of Niš to the Bulgarian border).[202][203] Work on the construction of the motorways on State Road 4 (110 km section between intersection with SR1 northeast of Kruševac and Požega on the west) as well as the remaining part of State Road 2 (52 km-long sections Belgrade-Obrenovac and Čačak-Požega) is set to commence in 2014 and be completed by 2016 and 2017, respectively.[204] Coach transport is very extensive: almost every place in the country is connected by bus, from largest cities to the villages; in addition there are international routes (mainly to countries of Western Europe with large Serb diaspora). Routes, both domestic and international, are served by more than 100 bus companies, biggest of which are Lasta and Niš-Ekspres. As of 2011, there are 1,677,510 registered passenger cars or 1 car per 4.3 inhabitants.[205]

Serbia has 3,819 kilometers of rail tracks, of which 1,279 are electrified and 283 kilometers are double-track railroad.[206] The major rail hub is Belgrade (and to a lesser degree Niš), while the most imprtant railroads include: Belgrade-Bar (Montenegro), Belgrade-Šid/Belgrade-Niš-Sofia (Bulgaria) (which is part of Pan-European Corridor X), Belgrade-Subotica-Budapest (Hungary) and Niš-Thessaloniki (Greece). Although still a major mode of freight transportation, railroads face increasing problems with the maintenance of the infrastructure and lowering speeds. All rail services are operated by public rail company, Serbian Railways.[207]

There are only 2 cities in Serbia (excluding Kosovo) served by international airports with regular passenger traffic: Belgrade and Niš. Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport served 3.36 million passengers in 2012, and is a hub of flagship carrier Air Serbia.[208]


Serbia has a developed inland water transport since there are 1,716  kilometers of navigable inland waterways (1,043 km of navigable rivers and 673 km of navigable canals), which are almost all located in northern third of the country.[209] The most important inland waterway is the Danube (which is also part of Pan-European Corridor 7). Other navigable rivers include Sava, Tisza, Begej and Timiş River, all of which connect Serbia with Northern and Western Europe through the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal and North Sea route, to Eastern Europe via the Tisza, Begej and Danube Black Sea routes, and to Southern Europe via the Sava river. More than 2.1 million tons of cargo were transported on Serbian rivers and canals in 2011 while the largest river ports are: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Smederevo and Prahovo.[210][211]

Telecommunications

Fixed telephone lines have 89% of households in Serbia, and with about 9.8 million users the number of cellphones surpasses the number of total population of Serbia itself by 35%. The largest cellphone provider is Telekom Srbija with 5.65 million subscribers, followed by Telenor with 3.1 million users and Vip mobile with just over 1 million.[212] Computers have 59.9% of households and 55.8% have internet connection (43.4% have a broadband connection).[213] Some 58% of households have cable TV, which is one of the highest rates in Europe.[214]

Tourism

Main article: Tourism in Serbia

Serbia is not a mass-tourism destination but nevertheless has diverse range of touristic products.[215] In 2012, some 2,079,643 tourists visited the country (809,967 were foreign tourists) while the average length of a tourist stay was 3.6 days (2.3 days for foreign tourists).[216][217] Foreign exchange earnings for the same year were estimated at around $1 billion.[218] Tourism is mainly focused on the mountains and spas of the country, which are mostly visited by domestic tourists, as well as Belgrade which is preferred choice of foreign tourists.[219] The most famous mountain resorts are Kopaonik, Balkan mountains, and Zlatibor. There are also many spas in Serbia, the biggest of which is Vrnjačka Banja, Soko Banja, and Banja Koviljača. City-break and conference tourism is developed in Belgrade (which was visited by 460,424 foreign tourists in 2012, more than a half of all international visits to the country) and to a lesser degree Novi Sad. Other touristic products that Serbia offer are natural wonders like Đavolja varoš,[220] Christian pilgrimage to the many Orthodox monasteries across the country[221] and the river cruising along the Danube. Additionally, there are several popular music festivals held in Serbia, such as EXIT ("The best European festival" in 2007 by UK Festival Awards and Yourope - the European Association of the 40 largest festivals in Europe) and the Guča trumpet festival.[222]

Education and science

Main article: Education in Serbia

According to 2011 census, literacy in Serbia stands at 98% while computer literacy is at 49% (complete computer literacy is at 34.2% of population).[223] Same census showed the following levels of education: 16.2% of inhabitants have higher education (10.6% have bachelors or masters degrees, 5.6% have an associates degree), 49% have a secondary education, 20.7% have an elementary education, and 2.7% have not completed elementary education.[224]

Education in Serbia is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science. Education starts in either preschools or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools at the age of seven. Compulsory education consists of eight grades of elementary school. Students have the opportunity to attend gymnasiums and vocational schools for another four years, or to enroll in vocational training for 2 to 3 years. Following the completion of gymnasiums or vocational schools, students have the opportunity to attend university.[225] Elementary and secondary education are also available in languages of recognised minorities in Serbia, where classes are held in Hungarian, Slovak, Albanian, Romanian, Rusyn, Bulgarian as well as Bosnian and Croatian languages.

There are 17 universities in Serbia (8 public universities with a total number of 85 faculties and 9 private universities with 51 faculties).[227] In 2010/2011 academic year, 181,362 students attended 17 universities (148,248 at 8 public universities and some 33,114 at 9 private universities) while 47,169 attended 81 "higher schools".[228] Public universities in Serbia are: the University of Belgrade (oldest, founded in 1808, and largest university with 89,827 undergraduates and graduates[229]), University of Novi Sad (founded in 1960 and with student body of 47,826[230]), University of Niš (founded in 1965; 27,000 students), University of Kragujevac (founded in 1976; 14,000 students), University of Pristina - Kos. Mitrovica, Public University of Novi Pazar as well as 2 specialist universities - University of Arts and University of Defence. Largest private universities include Megatrend University and Singidunum University, both in Belgrade, and Educons University in Novi Sad. Public universities tend to be of a better quality and therefore more renowned than private ones, and University of Belgrade (placed in 301-400 bracket on 2013 Shanghai Ranking of World Universities, being best-placed university in Southeast Europe after those in Athens and Thessaloniki) and University of Novi Sad are generally considered as the best institutions of higher learning in the country.[231]

Education in Serbia dates back to the Middle Ages with the establishment of autocephalous the Serbian Orthodox Church in 1217, when teaching was mostly conducted through the monasteries of Hilandar, Sopoćani, Studenica, and Patriarchate of Peć. Modern education however originates in 17th century, starting with the establishment of schools in the Catholic monasteries in Titel and Bač in Vojvodina, which was then part of Habsburg Empire, and with private teachers, who had been teaching in Serbian and Greek.[232] The oldest faculty (college) dates back to 1778; founded in the city of Sombor, then Habsburg Empire, it was known under the name Norma and was the oldest Slavic Teacher's college in Southeast Europe.[233]

Serbia has a rich tradition of contributing to the field of science and technology.

  • Nikola Tesla, electrical engineer and inventor, best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system including the AC induction motor.[234] The tesla is the SI derived unit of magnetic flux density and was named after Tesla.[235]
  • Mihajlo Pupin discovered a means of means of greatly extending the range of long-distance telephone communication by placing loading coils of wire (known as Pupin coils) at predetermined intervals along the transmitting wire (known as "pupinization").[236]
  • Milutin Milanković is known for his theory of ice ages, suggesting a relationship between the Earth's long-term climate changes and periodic changes in its orbit, now known as Milankovitch cycles.
  • Mihailo Petrović is known for having contributed significantly to differential equations and phenomenology, as well as inventing one of the first prototypes of an analog computer.
  • Miodrag Radulovacki is best known for postulating the Adenosine Sleep Theory in 1984.[237]

Culture


For centuries straddling the boundaries between East and West, Serbia had been divided among the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire; then between the Kingdom of Hungary, Bulgarian Empire, Frankish Kingdom and Byzantium; and then between the Ottoman Empire and the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, as well as Venice in the south. These overlapping influences have resulted in cultural varieties throughout Serbia and the Serbian-inhabited regions; its north leans to the profile of Central Europe, while the south is characteristic of the wider Balkans and the Mediterranean.

The Byzantine influence on Serbia was profound, firstly through the introduction of Eastern Christianity (Orthodoxy) in the Early Middle Ages. The Serbian Orthodox Church has had an enduring status in Serbia, with the many Serbian monasteries constituting the most valuable cultural monuments left from Serbia in the Middle Ages.

Serbia has a total of eight sites on the UNESCO World Heritage list: The Early Medieval capital Stari Ras and the 13th-century monastery Sopoćani, and the 12th-century monastery Studenica, and the endangered Medieval Monuments in Kosovo group, comprising the monasteries of Visoki Dečani, Our Lady of Ljeviš, Gračanica and Patriarchate of Peć (former seat of the Serbian Church, mausoleum of Serbian royalty) and finally the Roman estate of Gamzigrad–Felix Romuliana. There are two literary memorials on UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme: the 12th-century Miroslav Gospel, and scientist Nikola Tesla's valuable archive.

The most prominent museum in Serbia is the National Museum of Serbia, founded in 1844; it houses a collection of more than 400,000 exhibits, over 5,600 paintings and 8,400 drawings and prints, and includes many foreign masterpiece collections, including Miroslav Gospel. The museum is currently undergoing renovation.

The official language, Serbian, is the only European language with active digraphia, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets.

Art

Main article: Serbian art

There were many famous royal cities and palaces in Serbia at the time of Roman Empire and early Byzantine Empire, traces of which can still be found in Sirmium, Gamzigrad and Justiniana Prima. Serbian medieval monuments, which have survived until today, are mostly monasteries and churches. Most of these monuments have walls painted with frescoes. The most original monument of Serbian medieval art is the Studenica Monastery (built around 1190). This monastery was a model for later monasteries, like the Mileševa, Sopoćani and Visoki Dečani monasteries. The most famous Serbian medieval fresco is the "Mironosnice na Grobu" (or the "white angel") from the Mileševa monastery.[238]


Icon-painting is also part of Serbian medieval cultural heritage. The influence of Byzantine Art increased after the fall of Constantinople into the hands of the crusaders in the year 1204, when many Byzantine artists fled to Serbia. Their influence is seen in the building of the church Our Lady of Ljeviš and many other buildings, including the Gračanica Monastery. The monastery Visoki Dečani was built between the years 1330 and 1350. Unlike other Serbian monasteries, this one was built in the Romantic style, under the authority of grand master Vita from Kotor. On the frescoes of this monastery, there are some 1,000 portraits depicting the most important episodes from the New Testament.[238]

Another style of Architecture that followed in Serbia was that of the end of the 14th century, near the river Morava (Moravic school). A characteristic of this style was the wealthy decoration of the frontal church walls.

During the time of Turkish occupation, Serbian art was virtually non-existent, with the exception of several Serbian artists who lived in the lands ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy. Traditional Serbian art showed some Baroque influences at the end of the 18th century as shown in the works of Nikola Nešković, Teodor Kračun, Zaharije Orfelin and Jakov Orfelin.[240] Serbian painting showed the influence of Biedermeier, Neoclassicism, Romanticism and Realism during the 19th century. Some of the most prominent Serbian artists made their works at that time. Anastas Jovanović was a pioneering photographer in Serbia taking photographs of many leading Serbian citizens. Some of the most important Serbian painters of the 20th century were Paja Jovanović, Milan Konjović, Marko Čelebonović, Petar Lubarda, Uroš Predić, Milo Milunović, Vladimir Veličković, Mića Popović, Sava Šumanović and Milena Pavlović-Barili.[241]

Literature

Main article: Serbian literature


The start of Serbian literacy relates to the activity of the brothers Cyril and Methodius in the Balkans. Monuments of Serbian literacy from the early 11th century can be found, written in Glagolitic. Starting in the 12th century, books were written in Cyrillic. From this epoch, the oldest Serbian Cyrillic book editorial are the Miroslav Gospels. The Miroslav Gospels are considered to be the oldest book of Serbian medieval history. Notable medieval authors include Sava Nemanjić, Nun Jefimija, Stefan Lazarević, Constantine of Kostenets and others.[242] Baroque trends in Serbian literature emerged in the late 17th century. Notable Baroque-influenced authors were Andrija Zmajević, Gavril Stefanović Venclović, Jovan Rajić, Zaharije Orfelin and others.[243] Dositej Obradović was the most prominent figure of the Age of Enlightenment, while the most notable Classicist writer was Jovan Sterija Popović, although his works also contained elements of Romanticism.[244]

In the era of national revival, in the first half of the 19th century, Vuk Stefanović Karadžić collected Serbian folk literature, reformed the Serbian language and spelling and translated the New Testament into Serbian.[245] The first half of the 19th century was dominated by Romanticism, with Branko Radičević, Laza Kostić, Đura Jakšić and Jovan Jovanović Zmaj being the most notable representatives, while the second half of the century was marked by Realist writers such as Milovan Glišić, Laza Lazarević, Simo Matavulj, Stevan Sremac, Branislav Nušić, Radoje Domanović and Borisav Stanković. The 20th century was dominated by the prose writers Isidora Sekulić, Miloš Crnjanski, Ivo Andrić, Branko Ćopić, Meša Selimović, Borislav Pekić, Dobrica Ćosić, Danilo Kiš, Aleksandar Tišma and Milorad Pavić.[246][247] There were also many valuable poetic achievements, as seen by the writings of Milan Rakić, Jovan Dučić, Desanka Maksimović, Miodrag Pavlović, Vladislav Petković Dis, Branko Miljković, Vasko Popa, and others.[248]

In the last decade of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, the most popular Serbian writers were David Albahari, Milorad Pavić, Momo Kapor, Goran Petrović, Svetlana Velmar-Janković, Svetislav Basara and Zoran Živković.

Theatre and cinema


Serbia has a well-established theatrical tradition with many theaters. Joakim Vujić is the founder of modern Serbian theater.[249] The Knjaževsko-srpski teatar which was established in 1835, is the oldest theatre in Serbia.[249] The Belgrade International Theatre Festival, founded in 1967, is one of the oldest theater festivals in the world, and it has become one of the five most important and biggest European festivals.[250] Among the other important theaters there are Serbian National Theatre, National Theatre in Belgrade, Atelje 212 and Yugoslav Drama Theatre. Important Serbian writers of plays were Jovan Sterija Popović and Branislav Nušić.[251]

The Serbian cinema is one of the oldest in the Balkans, having its foundation in 1896 with the release of the oldest movie in the Balkans, "Život i dela besmrtnog vožda Karađorđa", a biography about Karađorđe.[252][253] The most famous filmmaker in Serbia and worldwide is Emir Kusturica which won two Golden Palms for Best Feature Film at the Cannes Film Festival, for When Father Was Away on Business in 1985 and then again for Underground in 1995.[254] The most important actors of Serbian theater and film are Miodrag Petrović Čkalja, Pavle Vujisić, Zoran Radmilović, Ljuba Tadić, Danilo Bata Stojković, Dragan Nikolić, Milena Dravić, Velimir Bata Zivojinović, Mira Stupica, Ljubiša Samardžić, Mira Banjac, Bora Todorović, Mija Aleksić, Olivera Marković, Petar Kralj, Miki Manojlović and many others.

Music

Main article: Music of Serbia

Serbia has a long tradition in music. Traditional Serbian music includes various kinds of bagpipes, flutes, horns, trumpets, lutes, psalteries, drums and cymbals. The kolo is the traditional collective folk dance, which has a number of varieties throughout the regions. The most popular are those from Užice and Morava region. Sung epic poetry has been an integral part of Serbian and Balkan music for centuries. In the highlands of Serbia these long poems are typically accompanied on a one-string fiddle called the gusle, and concern themselves with themes from history and mythology. There are records of gusle (гоусли) being played at the court of the 13th-century Serbian King Stefan Nemanjić.[255]


Composer and musicologist Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac is considered one of the most important founders of modern Serbian music.[256][257] The Serbian composers Petar Konjović, Stevan Hristić, and Miloje Milojević, all born in the 1880s, were the most eminent composers of their generation. They maintained the national expression and modernized the romanticism into the direction of impressionism. The best-known composers born around 1910 studied in Europe, mostly in Prague; Ljubica Marić, Stanojlo Rajicić, Milan Ristić who took influence from Schoenberg, Hindemith and Haba. Other famous classical Serbian composers include Isidor Bajić, Stanislav Binički and Josif Marinković.[258]

The former Yugoslav rock scene, which Serbian rock scene was a part of during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, was well developed, featuring various rock genres, and was well covered in the media, which included numerous magazines, radio and TV shows. With the breakout of Yugoslav wars, the former Yugoslav rock scene ceased to exist. During the 1990s popularity of rock music declined in Serbia, and although several major mainstream acts managed to sustain their popularity, an underground and independent music scene developed. During the 1990s most of, both mainstream and underground, rock acts expressed their opposition towards the regime of Slobodan Milošević. The most notable Serbian rock acts include Bajaga i Instruktori, Đorđe Balašević, Disciplina Kičme, Ekatarina Velika, Električni Orgazam, Galija, Idoli, Korni Grupa, Laboratorija Zvuka, Partibrejkers, Pekinška Patka, Rambo Amadeus, Riblja Čorba, Smak, Šarlo Akrobata, YU grupa, Van Gogh, and others.


In the 1990s and the 2000s, many pop music performers rose to fame. Željko Joksimović won second place at the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest and Marija Šerifović managed to win the 2007 Eurovision Song Contest with the song "Molitva", and Serbia was the host of the 2008 edition of the Contest.

The so-called "novokomponovana muzika" (newly composed music) can be seen as a result of the urbanization of folk music. In its early days, it had a professional approach to performance, used accordion and clarinet and typically included love songs or other simple lyrics. At a later stage, severak popular performers used more influences from pop music, oriental music, and other genres, which led to the emergence of turbo-folk.

Turbo-folk music emerged during the breakup of Yugoslavia. Turbo-folk used Serbian folk music and "novokomponovana" as its basis, and added influences from rock, pop and electronic dance music. In the first decade of the 21st century turbo-folk featured even more pop music elements, and some of the performers were labeled as pop-folk. The most notable Turbo-folk artists include Ceca and Jelena Karleuša.

Balkan Brass, or "truba" (trumpet) is a popular genre that originated during the First Serbian Uprising (1804–1813) with military marching bands that transposed Serbian folk music. the Guča trumpet festival is one of the most popular and biggest music festivals in Serbia, with over 300,000 visitors annually.[259]

Cuisine

Main article: Serbian cuisine

Serbian cuisine is a heterogeneous cuisine, sharing characteristics of the Balkans (especially former Yugoslavia), the Mediterranean (especially Greek), Turkish, and Central European (especially Austrian and Hungarian) cuisines. Each region has its own peculiarities and variations. Among traditional Serbian foods are ćevapčići, pljeskavica, sarma, pasulj, burek, gibanica, ajvar. The national drink is Slivovitz (šljivovica).[260]

Sports

Main article: Sport in Serbia


The most popular sports in Serbia are football, basketball, volleyball, handball, water polo and tennis.

Since the breakup of SFR Yugoslavia, Serbia has developed a reputation as one of the world's biggest exporters of expat footballers.[261] Even during the time of Yugoslavia, Serbia produced many players that succeeded in the Yugoslav national team over the years, such as Ballon d'Or nominee Dragan Džajić. In recent years, the most widely recognized footballers from Serbia include the likes of Nemanja Vidić. Since the 2006 dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro, the Serbia national football team made their first world-stage appearance at the 2010 FIFA World Cup, where they sensationally beat Germany in their first group-stage defeat since the 1986 FIFA World Cup.[262]

The three main football clubs in Serbia are Red Star and Partizan, both from Belgrade, and Vojvodina from Novi Sad. Red Star is the only Serbian and former Yugoslav club that has won a UEFA competition, winning the 1991 European Cup in Bari, Italy. The same year in Tokyo, Japan, the club won the Intercontinental Cup. Partizan is the first Eastern European football club which played in a European Cup final (in 1966). The rivalry between the two rival clubs is known as the "Eternal Derby", and is often cited as one of the most exciting sports rivalries in the world.[263][264] The Serbian SuperLiga is the highest professional league in the country. The 2011/2012 season champion was Partizan, followed by Red Star Belgrade in second place, and Vojvodina in third.


Serbia is one of the traditional powerhouses of world basketball, winning various FIBA World Championships, multiple EuroBasket and Olympic medals (albeit as FR Yugoslavia). Serbia's national basketball team is the successor to the successful Yugoslavia national basketball team. Serbs that have played in the NBA include Vlade Divac (FIBA Hall of Fame), Predrag Stojaković, Željko Rebrača, Marko Jarić, Nenad Krstić, Darko Miličić and Vladimir Radmanović. In the domestic scene, the Basketball League of Serbia is the highest professional basketball league in Serbia. For the eighth consecutive year, KK Partizan is the reigning champion of the league, followed by rivals KK Crvena Zvezda. KK Partizan was the European champion in 1992.

Success of Serbian tennis players Novak Đoković, Ana Ivanovic, Jelena Janković, Nenad Zimonjić, Janko Tipsarević, and Viktor Troicki has led to a popularisation of tennis in Serbia. Đoković is currently the #1 tennis player in the ATP rankings.[265] He was also the founder of the first ATP tennis tournament in the country, the Serbia Open (now discontinued). Other Serbia-born players are Monika Seles, Jelena Dokić and Slobodan Živojinović. The Serbia men's national team won the 2010 Davis Cup.[266]


Serbia and Italy were host nations of the 2005 Men's European Volleyball Championship. Serbia won the gold medal at the 2011 Men's European Volleyball Championship held in Austria and Czech Republic.

The Serbia men's national water polo team won the 2009 World Championships in Rome, Italy. Serbia has won four European Championships (2001, 2003, 2006 and 2012), finished as runner-up in 2008, won two World Championships (2005 and 2009) and won bronze medals at 2008 Summer Olympics and 2012 Summer Olympics.[267]

Other Serbian athletes are Olivera Jevtić, Dragutin Topić, swimmers Milorad Čavić and Nađa Higl, Aleksandar Karakašević (table tennis), and Jasna Šekarić (shooting).

See also

Serbia portal

References

Sources:

Bibliography

  • Michael Boro Petrovich, The History of Modern Serbia 1804-1918, 2 vols. I-II, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York 1976.
  • Dušan T. Bataković (dir), Histoire du peuple serbe, Lausanne, L'Age d'Homme 2005.
  • Dušan T. Bataković, The Kosovo Chronicles, Plato Books, Belgrade 1992.
  • The Serbs and Their National Interest, N. Von Ragenfeld-Feldman & D. T. Bataković (eds.), SUC, San Francisco & Belgrade 1997
  • Kosovo and Metohija. Living in the Enclave, D. T. Bataković (ed.), Institute for Balkan Studies, SASA, Belgrade 2007.
  • Dušan T. Bataković, Kosovo. Un conflit sans fin ?, Lausanne, L`Age d`Homme 2008.
  • Dušan T. Bataković, Serbia’s Kosovo Drama. A Historical Perspective, Čigoja Štampa, Belgrade 2012.

External links

  • National tourist organisation of Serbia
  • Serbia from UCB Libraries GovPubs.
  • DMOZ
  • BBC News.
  • Atlas of Serbia
  • Geographic data related to OpenStreetMap
  • International Futures.
  • The World Factbook

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