Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام
ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām

Participant in the Syrian Civil War, Iraq War (2003–2011), Iraqi insurgency, Iraq War (2014–present), Second Libyan Civil War, Boko Haram insurgency, War in North-West Pakistan, War in Afghanistan, Yemeni Civil War, and other conflicts

Primary target of Operation Inherent Resolve and of the military intervention against ISIL: in Syria, Iraq, Libya, and Nigeria.


  • Joined al-Qaeda: October 2004
  • Declaration of an Islamic state in Iraq: 13 October 2006
  • Claim of territory in the Levant: 8 April 2013
  • Separated from al-Qaeda:[1][2] 3 February 2014,[3]
  • Declaration of caliphate: 29 June 2014
  • Claim of territory in: Libya, Egypt, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen: 13 November 2014
    • Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of India: 29 January 2015[4]
    • Nigeria: 12 March 2015[5][6]
    • North Caucasus: 23 June 2015[7]
Headquarters Ar-Raqqah, Syria
(de facto capital)
Area of operations
Military situation as of 23 October 2015, in the Iraqi, Syrian, and Lebanese conflicts.
  Controlled by the Iraqi government
  Controlled by the Syrian government
  Controlled by the Lebanese government
  Controlled by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
  Controlled by Iraqi Kurdistan forces
  Controlled by Syrian Kurdistan forces
  Controlled by Syrian opposition forces
  Controlled by al-Nusra Front
  Controlled by Hezbollah
Note: Iraq and Syria contain large desert areas with limited populations. These areas are mapped as under the control of forces holding roads and towns within them.
Detailed map of Syrian Civil War

Strength Inside Syria and Iraq
200,000[24] (Kurdish claim)
100,000[25] (Jihadist claim)
20,000–31,000[26] (CIA estimate)
Outside Syria and Iraq
32,600–57,900 (See Military of ISIL for more detailed estimates.)
Estimated total
Originated as Jamāʻat al-Tawḥīd wa-al-Jihād (1999)[27]

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL; Arabic: الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام‎), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS, ) or the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham,[28] Islamic State (IS),[29] or Daesh (داعش, Arabic pronunciation: ),[30] is a Wahhabi/Salafi jihadist extremist militant group and self-proclaimed Islamic state and caliphate, which is led by and mainly composed of Sunni Arabs from Iraq and Syria.[31] As of March 2015, it has control over territory occupied by ten million people[32] in Iraq and Syria, and has nominal control over small areas of Libya, Nigeria and Afghanistan.[33][34] The group also operates or has affiliates in other parts of the world, including North Africa and South Asia.[35][36]

The group is known in Arabic as ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām, leading to the acronym Da'ish or Daesh, the Arabic equivalent of "ISIL".[28] On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be a European Union and member states, the United States, India, Indonesia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Syria and other countries. Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL.

The group originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. The group participated in the Iraqi insurgency that followed the March 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces. In January 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council, which proclaimed the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) in October 2006. After the Syrian Civil War began in March 2011, the ISI, under the leadership of al-Baghdadi, sent delegates into Syria in August 2011. These fighters named themselves Jabhat an-Nuṣrah li-Ahli ash-Shāmal-Nusra Front—and established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria, within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor, and Aleppo.[40] In April 2013, al-Baghdadi announced the merger of the ISI with al-Nusra Front and that the name of the reunited group was now the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). However, Abu Mohammad al-Julani and Ayman al-Zawahiri, the leaders of al-Nusra and al-Qaeda respectively, rejected the merger. After an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda cut all ties with ISIL on 3 February 2014, citing its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence".[3][41] In Syria, the group has conducted ground attacks on both government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. The group gained prominence after it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in western Iraq in an offensive initiated in early 2014. Iraq's territorial loss almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi government and prompted a renewal of US military action in Iraq.[42]

ISIL is adept at social media, posting Internet videos of beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists and aid workers, and is known for its destruction of cultural heritage sites.[43] Muslim leaders around the world have condemned ISIL's ideology and actions, arguing that the group has strayed from the path of true Islam and that its actions do not reflect the religion's true teachings or virtues.[44] The group's adoption of the name "Islamic State" and idea of a caliphate have been widely criticised, with the United Nations, NATO, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups rejecting both.


  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
    • Foundation, 1999–2006 2.1
    • As Islamic State of Iraq, 2006–13 2.2
      • Syrian Civil War 2.2.1
    • As Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, 2013–14 2.3
    • As Islamic State, 2014–present 2.4
  • Worldwide caliphate aims 3
    • Goals 3.1
    • Ideology and beliefs 3.2
      • Eschatology 3.2.1
    • Territorial claims and international presence 3.3
      • Libyan Provinces 3.3.1
      • Sinai Province 3.3.2
      • Algerian Province 3.3.3
      • Khorasan Province 3.3.4
      • Yemen 3.3.5
      • West African Province 3.3.6
      • North Caucasus Province 3.3.7
      • Southeast Asia 3.3.8
    • Other areas of operation 3.4
    • Leadership and governance 3.5
    • Monetary system 3.6
    • Non-combatants 3.7
  • Designation as a terrorist organisation 4
  • Human rights abuse and war crime findings 5
    • Religious and minority group persecution 5.1
    • Treatment of civilians 5.2
    • Child soldiers 5.3
    • Sexual violence and slavery 5.4
    • Attacks on members of the press 5.5
    • Beheadings and mass executions 5.6
    • Use of chemical weapons 5.7
    • Destruction of cultural and religious heritage 5.8
  • Criticism 6
    • Islamic criticism 6.1
    • International criticism 6.2
    • Criticism of the name "Islamic State" and "caliphate" declaration 6.3
  • In the media 7
    • Conspiracy theories 7.1
  • Countries and groups at war with ISIL 8
    • Opposition within Asia and Africa 8.1
    • The Global Coalition to Counter the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant 8.2
    • Other state opponents not part of the Counter-ISIL Coalition 8.3
    • Other non-state opponents 8.4
    • Al-Qaeda 8.5
  • Supporters 9
    • Iraq and Syria nationals 9.1
    • Foreign nationals 9.2
    • Groups with expressions of support 9.3
    • Allegations of Turkish support 9.4
    • Allegations of Qatari support 9.5
    • Allegations of Saudi Arabian support 9.6
    • Allegations of Syrian support 9.7
  • Military and resources 10
    • Military 10.1
      • Foreign fighters in Syria and Iraq 10.1.1
    • Weapons 10.2
      • Conventional weapons 10.2.1
      • Non-conventional weapons 10.2.2
    • Propaganda and social media 10.3
    • Finances 10.4
      • Oil revenues 10.4.1
      • Sale of antiques and artifacts 10.4.2
      • Taxation and extortion 10.4.3
      • Illegal drug trade 10.4.4
      • Donations Saudi Arabia and Gulf states 10.4.5
  • Timeline of events 11
    • May 2015 11.1
    • June 2015 11.2
    • July 2015 11.3
    • August 2015 11.4
  • See also 12
  • References 13
  • Bibliography 14
  • External links 15


The group has had various names since it began.[45]

  1. The group was founded in 1999 by Jordanian radical [27]
  2. In October 2004, al-Zarqawi Mesopotamia", commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI).[45][46] Although the group has never called itself al-Qaeda in Iraq, this has been its informal name over the years.[47]
  3. In January 2006, AQI merged with several other Iraqi insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council.[48] Al-Zarqawi was killed in June 2006.
  4. On 12 October 2006, the Mujahideen Shura Council merged with several more insurgent factions, and on 13 October the establishment of the ad-Dawlah al-ʻIraq al-Islāmiyah, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), was announced.[49] The leaders of this group were Abu Abdullah al-Rashid al-Baghdadi and Abu Ayyub al-Masri.[50] After they were killed in a US–Iraqi operation in April 2010, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi became the new leader of the group.
  5. On 8 April 2013, having expanded into Syria, the group adopted the name Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, which more fully translates as Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant or Islamic State of Iraq and Syria.[51][52][53] These names are translations of the Arabic name ad-Dawlah al-Islāmīyah fī-l-ʻIrāq wa-sh-Shām,[54][55] al-Shām being a description of the Levant or Greater Syria.[28] The translated names are commonly abbreviated as ISIL or ISIS, with a debate over which of these acronyms should be used.[28][55] The Washington Post concluded that the distinction between the two "is not so great".[28]
  6. The name Da'ish is often used by ISIL's Arabic-speaking detractors. It is based on the Arabic letters Dāl, alif, ʻayn, and shīn, which form the acronym (داعش) of ISIL's Arabic name al-Dawlah al-Islamīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-Shām.[56][57] There are many spellings of this acronym, with "Daesh" gaining acceptance. ISIL considers the name Da'ish derogatory, because it sounds similar to the Arabic words Daes, "one who crushes something underfoot", and Dahes, "one who sows discord".[30][58] ISIL reportedly uses flogging as a punishment for those who use the name in ISIL-controlled areas.[59][60] In 2015, over 120 British parliamentarians asked the BBC to use the name Daesh, following the example of John Kerry and Laurent Fabius.[30][61]
  7. On 14 May 2014, the United States Department of State announced its decision to use Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) as the group's primary name.[56] However, in late 2014, top US officials shifted toward using Daesh, since this was the name that their Arab allies preferred to use.[30]
  8. On 29 June 2014, the group renamed itself ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah (الدولة الإسلامية, Islamic State (IS)), and declared itself a worldwide [67][68][69][70]


Foundation, 1999–2006

Following the Mesopotamia"), also known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI).[1][71][72] Attacks by the group on civilians, Iraqi government and security forces, foreign diplomats and soldiers, and American convoys continued with roughly the same intensity. In a letter to al-Zarqawi in July 2005, al-Qaeda's then deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri outlined a four-stage plan to expand the Iraq War. The plan included expelling US forces from Iraq, establishing an Islamic authority as a caliphate, spreading the conflict to Iraq's secular neighbours, and clashing with Israel, which the letter says "was established only to challenge any new Islamic entity".[73]

In January 2006, AQI joined with several smaller Iraqi insurgent groups under an umbrella organisation called the Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC). According to Brian Fishman, this was little more than a media exercise and an attempt to give the group a more Iraqi flavour, and perhaps to distance al-Qaeda from some of al-Zarqawi's tactical errors, more notably the 2005 bombings by AQI of three hotels in Amman.[74] On 7 June 2006, a US airstrike killed al-Zarqawi, who was succeeded as leader of the group by the Egyptian militant Abu Ayyub al-Masri.[75][76]

On 12 October 2006, the MSC united with three smaller groups and six Sunni Islamic tribes to form the "Mutayibeen Coalition". It swore by Allah "to rid Sunnis from the oppression of the rejectionists (Shi'ite Muslims) and the crusader occupiers ... to restore rights even at the price of our own lives ... to make Allah's word supreme in the world, and to restore the glory of Islam".[77][78] A day later, the MSC declared the establishment of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), comprising Iraq's six mostly Sunni Arab governorates.[79] Abu Omar al-Baghdadi was announced as its emir,[49][80] and al-Masri was given the title of Minister of War within the ISI's ten-member cabinet.[81]

A joint US–Iraqi Army training exercise near Ramadi in November 2009. The Islamic State of Iraq had declared the city to be its capital.

As Islamic State of Iraq, 2006–13

According to a study compiled by United States intelligence agencies in early 2007, the ISI—also known as AQI—planned to seize power in the central and western areas of Iraq and turn it into a Sunni caliphate.[82] The group built in strength and at its height enjoyed a significant presence in the Iraqi governorates of Al Anbar, Diyala and Baghdad, claiming Baqubah as a capital city.[83][84][85][86]

The Iraq War troop surge of 2007 supplied the United States military with more manpower for operations targeting the group, resulting in dozens of high-level AQI members being captured or killed.[87]

Between July and October 2007, al-Qaeda in Iraq was reported to have lost its secure military bases in Al Anbar province and the Baghdad area.[88] During 2008, a series of US and Iraqi offensives managed to drive out AQI-aligned insurgents from their former safe havens, such as the Diyala and Al Anbar governorates, to the area of the northern city of Mosul.[89]

By 2008, the ISI was describing itself as being in a state of "extraordinary crisis".[90] Its violent attempts to govern its territory led to a backlash from Sunni Arab Iraqis and other insurgent groups and a temporary decline in the group, which was attributable to a number of factors,[91] notably the Anbar Awakening.

In late 2009, the commander of US forces in Iraq, General Ray Odierno, stated that the ISI "has transformed significantly in the last two years. What once was dominated by foreign individuals has now become more and more dominated by Iraqi citizens".[92] On 18 April 2010, the ISI's two top leaders, Abu Ayyub al-Masri and Abu Omar al-Baghdadi, were killed in a joint US-Iraqi raid near Tikrit.[93] In a press conference in June 2010, General Odierno reported that 80% of the ISI's top 42 leaders, including recruiters and financiers, had been killed or captured, with only eight remaining at large. He said that they had been cut off from al-Qaeda's leadership in Pakistan.[94][95][96]

On 16 May 2010, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was appointed the new leader of the Islamic State of Iraq.[97][98] Al-Baghdadi replenished the group's leadership, many of whom had been killed or captured, by appointing former Ba'athist military and intelligence officers who had served during Saddam Hussein's rule.[99] These men, nearly all of whom had spent time imprisoned by the US military, came to make up about one third of Baghdadi's top 25 commanders. One of them was a former colonel, Samir al-Khlifawi, also known as Haji Bakr, who became the overall military commander in charge of overseeing the group's operations.[100][101] Al-Khlifawi was instrumental in doing the ground work that led to the growth of ISIL.[102]

Former Ba'athists in ISI are "true believers" in the religious ideology they espoused and not secularists using ISI as a front for their cause.[103] Islamification policies started by Saddam after 1989 resulted in the spread of a hybrid "Ba’athist-Salafism".[104]

In July 2012, al-Baghdadi released an audio statement online announcing that the group was returning to former strongholds from which US troops and the Sons of Iraq had driven them in 2007 and 2008.[105] He also declared the start of a new offensive in Iraq called Breaking the Walls, aimed at freeing members of the group held in Iraqi prisons.[105] Violence in Iraq had begun to escalate in June 2012, primarily with AQI's car bomb attacks, and by July 2013, monthly fatalities exceeded 1,000 for the first time since April 2008.[106]

Syrian Civil War

In March 2011, protests began in Syria against the Syrian government of Abu Muhammad al-Julani, this group began to recruit fighters and establish cells throughout the country.[108][109] In January 2012, the group announced its formation as Jabhat al-Nusra li Ahl as-ShamJabhat al-Nusra—more commonly known as al-Nusra Front. Al-Nusra grew rapidly into a capable fighting force, with popular support among Syrians opposed to the Assad government.[108]

As Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, 2013–14

On 8 April 2013, al-Baghdadi released an audio statement in which he announced that al-Nusra Front had been established, financed, and supported by the Islamic State of Iraq,[110] and that the two groups were merging under the name "Islamic State of Iraq and Al-Sham".[51] Al-Julani issued a statement denying the merger, and complaining that neither he nor anyone else in al-Nusra's leadership had been consulted about it.[111] In June 2013, Al Jazeera reported that it had obtained a letter written by al-Qaeda's leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, addressed to both leaders, in which he ruled against the merger, and appointed an emissary to oversee relations between them to put an end to tensions.[112] That same month, al-Baghdadi released an audio message rejecting al-Zawahiri's ruling and declaring that the merger was going ahead.[113] Meanwhie, the ISIL campaign to free imprisoned ISIL members culminated in July 2013, with the group carrying out simultaneous raids on Taji and Abu Ghraib prisons, freeing more than 500 prisoners, many of them veterans of the Iraqi insurgency.[106][114] In October 2013, al-Zawahiri ordered the disbanding of ISIL, putting al-Nusra Front in charge of jihadist efforts in Syria,[115] but al-Baghdadi contested al-Zawahiri's ruling on the basis of Islamic jurisprudence,[113] and his group continued to operate in Syria. In February 2014, after an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda disavowed any relations with ISIL.[41]

According to journalist Sarah Birke, there are "significant differences" between al-Nusra Front and ISIL. While al-Nusra actively calls for the overthrow of the Assad government, ISIL "tends to be more focused on establishing its own rule on conquered territory". ISIL is "far more ruthless" in building an Islamic state, "carrying out sectarian attacks and imposing sharia law immediately". While al-Nusra has a "large contingent of foreign fighters", it is seen as a home-grown group by many Syrians; by contrast, ISIL fighters have been described as "foreign 'occupiers'" by many Syrian refugees.[116] It has a strong presence in central and northern Syria, where it has instituted sharia in a number of towns.[116] The group reportedly controlled the four border towns of Atmeh, al-Bab, Azaz and Jarablus, allowing it to control the entrance and exit from Syria into Turkey.[116] Foreign fighters in Syria include Russian-speaking jihadists who were part of Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar (JMA).[117] In November 2013, the JMA's Chechen leader Abu Omar al-Shishani swore an oath of allegiance to al-Baghdadi;[118] the group then split between those who followed al-Shishani in joining ISIL and those who continued to operate independently in the JMA under new leadership.[119]

In January 2014, rebels affiliated with the Islamic Front and the US-trained Free Syrian Army[120] launched an offensive against ISIL militants in and around the city of Aleppo.[121][122] In May 2014, Ayman al-Zawahiri ordered the al-Nusra Front to stop its attacks on its rival, ISIL.[123] In June 2014, after continued fighting between the two groups, al-Nusra's branch in the Syrian town of Al-Bukamal pledged allegiance to ISIL.[124][125] In mid-June 2014, ISIL captured the Trabil crossing on the Jordan–Iraq border,[126] the only border crossing between the two countries.[127] ISIL has received some public support in Jordan, albeit limited, partly owing to state repression there.[128] ISIL has undertaken a recruitment drive in Saudi Arabia,[129] where tribes in the north are linked to those in western Iraq and eastern Syria.[130]

As Islamic State, 2014–present

On 29 June 2014, the organisation proclaimed itself to be a [67][68][69][70]

In June and July 2014, Jordan and Saudi Arabia moved troops to their borders with Iraq, after Iraq lost control of, or withdrew from, strategic crossing points that then came under the control of ISIL, or tribes that supported ISIL.[127][133] There was speculation that Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki had ordered a withdrawal of troops from the Iraq–Saudi crossings in order "to increase pressure on Saudi Arabia and bring the threat of ISIS over-running its borders as well".[130]

In July 2014, ISIL recruited more than 6,300 fighters, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, some of whom were thought to have previously fought for the Free Syrian Army.[134] On 23 July 2014, Abu Sayyaf leader Isnilon Totoni Hapilon and some masked men swore loyalty to al-Baghdadi in a video, giving ISIL a presence in the Philippines.[36][135] In September 2014, the group began kidnapping people for ransoming, in the name of ISIL.[136]

Yazidi refugees and American aid workers on Mount Sinjar in August 2014

On 3 August 2014, ISIL captured the cities of Zumar, Sinjar, and Wana in northern Iraq.[137] Thousands of Yazidis fled up Mount Sinjar, fearful of the approaching hostile ISIL militants. The stranded Yazidis' need for food and water, the threat of genocide to them and to others announced by ISIL, along with the desire to protect US citizens in Iraq and support Iraq in its fight against ISIL, were all reasons for the 2014 American intervention in Iraq on 7 August[138] and an aerial bombing campaign in Iraq which started on 8 August.

On 11 October 2014, it was reported that ISIL had dispatched 10,000 militants from Syria and Mosul to capture the Iraqi capital city of Baghdad,[139] and Iraqi Army forces and Anbar tribesmen threatened to abandon their weapons if the US did not send in ground troops to halt ISIL's advance.[140] On 13 October, ISIL fighters advanced to within 25 kilometres (16 mi) of Baghdad Airport.[141]

At the end of October 2014, 800 radical militants gained partial control of the Libyan city of Derna and pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, thus making Derna the first city outside Syria and Iraq to be a part of the "Islamic State Caliphate".[142] On 2 November 2014, according to the Associated Press, in response to the coalition airstrikes, representatives from Ahrar ash-Sham attended a meeting with al-Nusra Front, the Khorasan Group, ISIL, and Jund al-Aqsa, which sought to unite these hard-line groups against the US-led coalition and moderate Syrian rebel groups.[143] However, by 14 November 2014, it was revealed that the negotiations had failed.[144] On 10 November 2014, a major faction of the Egyptian militant group Ansar Bait al-Maqdis also pledged its allegiance to ISIL.[145]

Coalition airstrike on ISIL position, October 2014

ISIL has often used water as a weapon of war. The closing of the gates of the smaller Nuaimiyah dam in Fallujah in April 2014, resulted in the flooding of surrounding regions, while water supply was cut to the Shia-dominated south. Around 12,000 families lost their homes and 200 km² of villages and fields were either flooded or dried up. The economy of the region also suffered with destruction of cropland and electricity shortages.[146]

In mid-January 2015, a Yemeni official said that ISIL had "dozens" of members in Yemen, and that they were coming into direct competition with al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula with their recruitment drive.[147]

In January 2015, Afghan officials confirmed that ISIL had a military presence in Afghanistan,[148] recruiting over 135 militants by late January. However, by the end of January 2015, 65 of the militants were either captured or killed by the Taliban, and ISIL's top Afghan recruiter, Mullah Abdul Rauf, was killed in a US drone strike in February 2015.[149][150][151]

In late January 2015, it was reported that ISIL members had infiltrated the European Union and disguised themselves as civilian refugees who were emigrating from the war zones of Iraq and the Levant.[152] An ISIL representative claimed that ISIL had successfully smuggled 4,000 fighters, and that the smuggled fighters were planning attacks in Europe in retaliation for the airstrikes carried out against ISIL targets in Iraq and Syria. However, experts believe that this claim was exaggerated to boost their stature and spread fear, although they acknowledged that some Western countries were aware of the smuggling.[153]

In early February 2015, ISIL militants in Libya managed to capture part of the countryside to the west of Sabha, and later, an area encompassing the cities of Sirte, Nofolia, and a military base to the south of both cities.

In February 2015, it was reported that some Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen members had broken from al-Qaeda and pledged allegiance to ISIL.[154]

On 16 February 2015, Egypt conducted airstrikes in Libya, in retaliation against ISIL's beheading of 21 Egyptian Christians. By the end of that day, 64 ISIL militants in Libya had been killed by the airstrikes, including 50 militants in Derna.[155] However, by early March, ISIL had captured additional Libyan territory, including a city to the west of Derna, additional areas near Sirte, a stretch of land in southern Libya, some areas around Benghazi, and an area to the east of Tripoli.

On 7 March 2015, Boko Haram swore formal allegiance to ISIL, giving ISIL an official presence in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon.[6][156][157] On 13 March 2015, a group of militants from the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan swore allegiance to ISIL;[158] the group released another video on 31 July 2015 containing its spiritual leader also pledging allegiance.[159] On 30 March 2015, the senior sharia official of Ansar al-Sharia in Libya, Abdullah Al-Libi, defected to ISIL.[160]

From March through mid-April 2015, advances by Iraqi forces into ISIL-controlled territory were focused on Tikrit and the Saladin Governorate.[161]

In June 2015, the US Deputy Secretary of State announced that ISIL had lost more than 10,000 members in airstrikes over the preceding nine months.[162]

In the same month, three simultaneous attacks occurred: two hotels were attacked by gunmen in Tunisia, a man was decapitated in France, and a bomb was detonated at a Shia mosque in Kuwait. ISIL claimed responsibility for the attacks in Kuwait and Tunisia. ISIL flags were present at the crime scene in France, but ISIL has not claimed responsibility for the attack.

Worldwide caliphate aims


Since at least 2004, a significant goal of the group has been the foundation of a Sunni Islamic state.[163][164] Specifically, ISIL has sought to establish itself as a caliphate, an Islamic state led by a group of religious authorities under a supreme leader—the caliph—who is believed to be the successor to Prophet Muhammad.[165] In June 2014, ISIL published a document in which it claimed to have traced the lineage of its leader al-Baghdadi back to Muhammad,[165] and upon proclaiming a new caliphate on 29 June, the group appointed al-Baghdadi as its caliph. As caliph, he demands the allegiance of all devout Muslims worldwide, according to Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh).[166]

ISIL has detailed its goals in its Dabiq magazine, saying it will continue to seize land and take over the entire Earth : “blessed flag…covers all eastern and western extents of the Earth, filling the world with the truth and justice of Islam and putting an end to the falsehood and tyranny of jahiliyyah [state of ignorance], even if American and its coalition despise such.”[167] According to German journalist Jürgen Todenhöfer, who spent ten days embedded with ISIL in Mosul, the view that he kept hearing was that ISIL wants to “conquer the world” and all who do not believe in the group’s interpretation of the Koran will be killed. Todenhöfer was struck by the ISIL fighters belief that “all religions who agree with democracy have to die”,[168] and by their "incredible enthusiasm"—including enthusiasm for killing "hundreds of millions" of people.[169]

A map circulated around the internet purporting to show historical areas of former Islamic states in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, that ISIL planned to expand to, was created by outside supporters and had no official connection to the ISIL state.[170][171][172][173][174][175][176]

When the caliphate was proclaimed, ISIL stated: "The legality of all emirates, groups, states and organisations becomes null by the expansion of the khilafah's [caliphate's] authority and arrival of its troops to their areas."[165] This was a rejection of the political divisions in the Middle East that were established by European countries during World War I in the Sykes–Picot Agreement.[177][178][179]

Ideology and beliefs

ISIL is a Salafi or Wahhabi group.[11][180][181] It follows an extremist interpretation of Islam, promotes religious violence, and regards Muslims who do not agree with its interpretations as infidels or apostates.[8] According to Hayder al Khoei, ISIL's philosophy is represented by the symbolism in the Black Standard variant of the legendary battle flag of Prophet Muhammad that it has adopted: the flag shows the Seal of Muhammad within a white circle, with the phrase above it, "There is no God but Allah".[182] Such symbolism has been said to point to ISIL's belief that it represents the restoration of the caliphate of early Islam, with all the political, religious and eschatological ramifications that this would imply.[183]

According to some observers, ISIL emerged from the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, the first post-Ottoman Islamist group dating back to the late 1920s in Egypt.[184] It adheres to global jihadist principles and follows the hard-line ideology of al-Qaeda and many other modern-day jihadist groups.[8][3] However, other sources trace the group's roots to Wahhabism. The New York Times wrote:

For their guiding principles, the leaders of the Islamic State ... are open and clear about their almost exclusive commitment to the Wahhabi movement of Sunni Islam. The group circulates images of Wahhabi religious textbooks from Saudi Arabia in the schools it controls. Videos from the group’s territory have shown Wahhabi texts plastered on the sides of an official missionary van.[12]

According to The Economist, dissidents in the ISIL capital of Ar-Raqqah report that "all 12 of the judges who now run its court system ... are Saudis". Saudi Wahhabi practices also followed by the group include the establishment of religious police to root out "vice" and enforce attendance at salat prayers, the widespread use of capital punishment, and the destruction or re-purposing of any non-Sunni religious buildings.[185] Bernard Haykel has described al-Baghdadi's creed as "a kind of untamed Wahhabism".[12]

ISIL aims to return to the early days of Islam, rejecting all innovations in the religion, which it believes corrupts its original spirit. It condemns later caliphates and the Ottoman Empire for deviating from what it calls pure Islam,[170] and seeks to revive the original Wahhabi project of the restoration of the caliphate governed by strict Salafist doctrine. Following Salafi-Wahhabi tradition, ISIL condemns the followers of secular law as disbelievers, putting the current Saudi Arabian government in that category.[186]

Salafists such as ISIL believe that only a legitimate authority can undertake the leadership of jihad, and that the first priority over other areas of combat, such as fighting non-Muslim countries, is the purification of Islamic society. For example, ISIL regards the Palestinian Sunni group Hamas as apostates who have no legitimate authority to lead jihad and see fighting Hamas as the first step toward confrontation by ISIL with Israel.[12][187]


One difference between ISIL and other Islamist and jihadist movements, including al-Qaeda, is the group's emphasis on eschatology and apocalypticism—that is, a belief in a final Day of Judgement by God, and specifically, a belief that the arrival of one known as Imam Mahdi is near. ISIL believes that it will defeat the army of "Rome" at the town of Dabiq, in fulfilment of prophecy.[188] Following its interpretation of the Hadith of the Twelve Successors, ISIL also believes that after al-Baghdadi there will be only four more legitimate caliphs.[188]

The noted scholar of militant Islamism William McCants writes in his book The ISIS Apocalypse: The History, Strategy, and Doomsday Vision of the Islamic State:

References to the End Times fill Islamic State propaganda. It's a big selling point with foreign fighters, who want to travel to the lands where the final battles of the apocalypse will take place. The civil wars raging in those countries today [Iraq and Syria] lend credibility to the prophecies. The Islamic State has stoked the apocalyptic fire. [...] For Bin Laden's generation, the apocalypse wasn't a great recruiting pitch. Governments in the Middle East two decades ago were more stable, and sectarianism was more subdued. It was better to recruit by calling to arms against corruption and tyranny than against the Antichrist. Today, though the apocalyptic recruiting pitch makes more sense.[189]

Territorial claims and international presence

     Areas controlled (as of 21 October 2015)      Remaining territory in countries with ISIL presence

In Iraq and Syria, ISIL uses many of those countries' existing governorate boundaries to subdivide its claimed territory; it calls these divisions wilayah or provinces.[190] As of June 2015, it had established official branches in Libya, Egypt (Sinai Peninsula), Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Algeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nigeria and the North Caucasus.[191] Outside Iraq and Syria, it controls territory in only Sinai, Afghanistan, and Libya.[33] ISIL also has members in Morocco, Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Israel and Palestine, but does not have official branches in those areas.[192]

Libyan Provinces

Current military situation in Libya:
  Under the control of ISIL and Ansar al-Sharia

ISIL divides Libya into three historical provinces, claiming authority over Cyrenaica in the east, Fezzan in the desert south, and Tripolitania in the west, around its capital Tripoli.[193]

On 5 October 2014, the Shura Council of Islamic Youth and other militants in Libya were absorbed and designated the Cyrenaica Province of ISIL.[194][195] The Libyan branch of ISIL has been the most active and successful of all ISIL branches outside Iraq and Syria. It has been active mainly around Derna and Gaddafi's hometown Sirte.[196][197]

On 4 January 2015, ISIL forces in Libya seized control of the eastern countryside of Sabha, executing 14 Libyan soldiers in the process.[198][199] They temporarily controlled part of Derna before being driven out in mid-2015.[200] Reports from Sirte suggest ISIL militants based there are a mixture of foreign fighters and ex-Gaddafi loyalists.[201] An initiative between pro-Dawn forces associated with Misrata and Operation Dawn clashed with these IS militants in Sirte.[202][203] Fighting between Libya Dawn forces and ISIL militants was also reported in the Daheera area west of the city of Sirte, and at the Harawa vicinity east of Sirte.[204]

One unconfirmed source has claimed that ISIL uses its bases in Libya to smuggle its fighters into the European Union posing as refugees.[205][206]

Sinai Province

On 10 November 2014, many members of the group Ansar Bait al-Maqdis took an oath of allegiance to al-Baghdadi.[145] Following this, the group assumed the designation Sinai Province (Wilayat Sinai).[194][207][208][209] They are estimated to have 1,000–2,000 fighters.[36][210] A faction of the Sinai group also operates in the Gaza Strip, calling itself the Islamic State in Gaza.[211] On 19 August 2015, members of the group bombed an Egyptian security headquarters building in northern Cairo, injuring 30 people.[212]

Algerian Province

Members of [213] ISIL in Algeria gained notoriety when it beheaded French tourist Herve Gourdel in September 2014. Since then, the group has largely been silent, with reports that its leader Khalid Abu-Sulayman was killed by Algerian forces in December 2014.[191]

Khorasan Province

On 26 January 2015, Khorasan Province (Wilayat Khorasan) was established, with Hafiz Saeed Khan named as Wāli (Governor) and Abdul Rauf as his deputy after both swore an oath of allegiance to al-Baghdadi. The name Khorasan refers to a historical region that includes Afghanistan, Pakistan, and "other nearby lands".[4][151][214][215]

On 9 February 2015, Mullah Abdul Rauf was killed by a NATO airstrike.[151] On 18 March 2015, Hafiz Wahidi, ISIL's replacement deputy Emir in Afghanistan, was killed by the Afghan Armed Forces, along with nine other ISIL militants who were accompanying him.[216] In June, Reuters received reports that villages in several districts of Afghanistan's eastern Nangarhar Province had been captured from the Taliban by ISIL sympathisers.[33] On 10 July 2015, Hafiz Saeed Khan, the Emir of ISIL's Khorasan Province, was reportedly killed in U.S. drone strike in eastern Afghanistan.[217] However Khorasan Province released an audio tape claimed to be of Hafiz Saeed Khan on 13 July 2015,[218] and he was sanctioned by the US Department of the Treasury on 29 September 2015.[219]


Current military situation in Yemen:
  Controlled by the Revolutionary Committee
  Controlled by the Hadi-led government and the Southern Movement
  Controlled by Ansar al-Sharia/AQAP forces

On 13 November 2014, unidentified militants in Yemen pledged allegiance to ISIL.[213] By December of that year, ISIL had built an active presence inside Yemen, with its recruitment drive bringing it into direct competition with al-Qaeda-affiliated al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP).[147][220] In February 2015, it was reported that some members of Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen had split from AQAP and pledged allegiance to ISIL.[221] As the Yemeni Civil War escalated in March 2015, at least seven ISIL Wilayat, named after existing provincial boundaries in Yemen, claimed responsibility for attacks against the Houthis, including the Hadhramaut Province, the Shabwah Province, and the Sana'a Province.[222][223]


West African Province

On 7 March 2015, Boko Haram's leader [337] The article claims that ISIL is not merely exonerating but sacralising rape, and illustrated this with the testimony of escapees. One 15-year-old victim said that, while she was being assaulted, her rapist "kept telling me this is ibadah"; a 12-year-old victim related how her assailant claimed that, "by raping me, he is drawing closer to God";[337] and one adult prisoner told how, when she challenged her captor about repeatedly raping a 12 year old, she was met with the retort, "No, she's not a little girl, she's a slave and she knows exactly how to have sex and having sex with her pleases God."[337]

Attacks on members of the press

The [386]

In December 2013, two suicide bombers stormed the headquarters of TV station Salaheddin and killed five journalists, after accusing the station of "distorting the image of Iraq's Sunni community". Reporters Without Borders reported that on 7 September 2014, ISIL seized and on 11 October publicly beheaded Raad al-Azzawi, a TV Salaheddin cameraman from the village of Samra, east of Tikrit.[387] As of October 2014, according to the Journalistic Freedoms Observatory, ISIL is holding nine journalists and has nine others under close observation in Mosul and Salahuddin province.[386]

During 2013 and part of 2014, an ISIL unit nicknamed the Beatles acquired and held 12 Western journalists hostage, along with aid workers and other foreign hostages, totalling 23 or 24 known hostages. A Polish journalist Marcin Suder was captured in July 2013 but escaped four months later.[388] The unit executed American journalists James Foley and Steven Sotloff and released beheading videos. Eight of the other journalists were released for ransom: Danish journalist Daniel Rye Ottosen, French journalists Didier François, Edouard Elias, Nicolas Hénin, and Pierre Torres, and Spanish journalists Marc Marginedas, Javier Espinosa, and Ricardo García Vilanova. The unit continues to hold hostage British journalist John Cantlie and a female aid worker.[389]

Cyber-security group the Citizen Lab released a report finding a possible link between ISIL and a digital attack on the Syrian citizen media group Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently (RSS). Supporters of the media group received an emailed link to an image of supposed airstrikes, but clicking on the link introduced malware to the user's computer that sends details of the user's IP address and system each time it restarts. That information has been enough to allow ISIL to locate RSS supporters. "The group has been targeted for kidnappings, house raids, and at least one alleged targeted killing. At the time of that writing, ISIL was allegedly holding several citizen journalists in Raqqa", according to the Citizen Lab report.[390]

On 8 January 2015, ISIL members in Libya claimed to have executed Tunisian journalists Sofiene Chourabi and Nadhir Ktari who disappeared in September 2014.[391] Also in January 2015, Japanese journalist Kenji Goto Jogo was kidnapped and beheaded, after a demand for a $200 million ransom payment was not met.[392]

Beheadings and mass executions

An unknown number of Syrians and Iraqis, several Lebanese soldiers, at least ten Kurds, two American journalists, one American and two British aid workers, and three Libyans have been beheaded by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. ISIL uses beheadings to intimidate local populations and has released a series of propaganda videos aimed at Western countries.[393] They also engage in public and mass executions of Syrian and Iraqi soldiers and civilians,[292] sometimes forcing prisoners to dig their own graves before shooting lines of prisoners and pushing them in.[394][395] ISIL was reported to have beheaded about 100 foreign fighters as deserters who tried to leave Raqqa.[396]

Use of chemical weapons

Kurds in northern Iraq reported being attacked by ISIS with chemical weapons in August 2015.[397]

Destruction of cultural and religious heritage

UNESCO's Director-General Irina Bokova has warned that ISIL is destroying Iraq's cultural heritage, in what she has called "cultural cleansing". "We don't have time to lose because extremists are trying to erase the identity, because they know that if there is no identity, there is no memory, there is no history", she said. Referring to the ancient cultures of Christians, Yazidis and other minorities, she said, "This is a way to destroy identity. You deprive them of their culture, you deprive them of their history, their heritage, and that is why it goes hand in hand with genocide. Along with the physical persecution they want to eliminate – to delete – the memory of these different cultures. ... we think this is appalling, and this is not acceptable."[398] Saad Eskander, head of Iraq's National Archives said, "For the first time you have cultural cleansing... For the Yazidis, religion is oral, nothing is written. By destroying their places of worship ... you are killing cultural memory. It is the same with the Christians – it really is a threat beyond belief."[399]

In July 2014, ISIL demolished the mosque dedicated to Jonah in Mosul

To finance its activities, ISIL is stealing artifacts from Syria[400] and Iraq and sending them to Europe to be sold. It is estimated that ISIL raises US$200 million a year from cultural looting. UNESCO has asked for United Nations Security Council controls on the sale of antiquities, similar to those imposed after the 2003 Iraq War. UNESCO is working with Interpol, national customs authorities, museums, and major auction houses in attempts to prevent looted items from being sold.[399] ISIL occupied Mosul Museum, the second most important museum in Iraq, as it was about to reopen after years of rebuilding following the Iraq War, saying that the statues were against Islam and threatening to destroy the museum's contents.[401][402]

ISIL considers worshipping at graves tantamount to idolatry, and seeks to purify the community of unbelievers. It has used bulldozers to crush buildings and archaeological sites.[402] Hadba minaret at the 12th-century Great Mosque of Al-Nuri have been described as "an unchecked outburst of extreme Wahhabism".[403] "There were explosions that destroyed buildings dating back to the Assyrian era", said National Museum of Iraq director Qais Rashid, referring to the destruction of the shrine of Yunus. He cited another case where "Daesh (ISIL) gathered over 1,500 manuscripts from convents and other holy places and burnt all of them in the middle of the city square".[404] In March 2015, ISIL reportedly bulldozed the 13th-century BC Assyrian city of Nimrud, believing its sculptures to be idolatrous. UNESCO head, Irina Bokova, deemed this to be a war crime.[405]


Islamic criticism

ISIL has received severe criticism from other Muslims, especially religious scholars and theologians. In late August 2014, the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al ash-Sheikh, condemned the Islamic State and al-Qaeda saying, "Extremist and militant ideas and terrorism which spread decay on Earth, destroying human civilization, are not in any way part of Islam, but are enemy number one of Islam, and Muslims are their first victims".[406] In late September 2014, 126 Sunni imams and Islamic scholars—primarily Sufi[407]—from around the Muslim world signed an open letter to the Islamic State's leader al-Baghdadi, explicitly rejecting and refuting his group's interpretations of Islamic scriptures, the Qur'an and hadith, used by it to justify its actions.[380][408] "[You] have misinterpreted Islam into a religion of harshness, brutality, torture and murder ... this is a great wrong and an offence to Islam, to Muslims and to the entire world", the letter states.[379] It rebukes the Islamic State for its killing of prisoners, describing the killings as "heinous war crimes" and its persecution of the Yazidis of Iraq as "abominable". Referring to the "self-described 'Islamic State'", the letter censures the group for carrying out killings and acts of brutality under the guise of jihad—holy struggle—saying that its "sacrifice" without legitimate cause, goals and intention "is not jihad at all, but rather, warmongering and criminality".[379][409] It also accuses the group of instigating fitna—sedition—by instituting slavery under its rule in contravention of the anti-slavery consensus of the Islamic scholarly community.[379] Other scholars have described the group as not Sunnis, but Khawarij.[410]

Kurdish demonstration against ISIL in Vienna, Austria, 10 October 2014

According to The New York Times, "All of the most influential jihadist theorists are criticizing the Islamic State as deviant, calling its self-proclaimed caliphate null and void" and have denounced it for its beheading of journalists and aid workers.[12] ISIL is widely denounced by a broad range of Islamic clerics, including al-Qaeda-oriented and Saudi clerics.[11][12]

Sunni critics, including Salafi and jihadist muftis such as Adnan al-Aroor and Abu Basir al-Tartusi, say that ISIL and related terrorist groups are not Sunnis, but modern-day Khawarij—Muslims who have stepped outside the mainstream of Islam—serving an imperial anti-Islamic agenda.[411][412] Other critics of ISIL's brand of Sunni Islam include Salafists who previously publicly supported jihadist groups such as al-Qaeda, for example the Saudi government official Saleh Al-Fawzan, known for his extremist views, who claims that ISIL is a creation of "Zionists, Crusaders and Safavids", and the Jordanian-Palestinian writer Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, the former spiritual mentor to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who was released from prison in Jordan in June 2014 and accused ISIL of driving a wedge between Muslims.[412]

The group's declaration of a caliphate has been criticised and its legitimacy disputed by Middle Eastern governments, other jihadist groups,[413] and Sunni Muslim theologians and historians. Qatar-based TV broadcaster and theologian Yusuf al-Qaradawi stated: "[The] declaration issued by the Islamic State is void under sharia and has dangerous consequences for the Sunnis in Iraq and for the revolt in Syria", adding that the title of caliph can "only be given by the entire Muslim nation", not by a single group.[414] The group's execution of Muslims for breach of traditional sharia law while violating it itself (encouraging women to emigrate to its territory, traveling without a Wali—male guardian—and in violation of his wishes) has been criticized;[415] as has its love of archaic imagery (horsemen and swords) while engaging in bid‘ah (religious innovation) in establishing female religious police (known as al-Khansa' Brigades).[416]

Two days after the beheading of Hervé Gourdel, hundreds of Muslims gathered in the Grand Mosque of Paris to show solidarity against the beheading. The protest was led by the leader of the French Council of the Muslim Faith, Dalil Boubakeur, and was joined by thousands of other Muslims around the country under the slogan "Not in my name".[417][418] French president François Hollande said Gourdel's beheading was "cowardly" and "cruel", and confirmed that airstrikes would continue against ISIL in Iraq. Hollande also called for three days of national mourning, with flags flown at half-mast throughout the country and said that security would be increased throughout Paris.[417]

An Islamic Front Sharia Court Judge in Aleppo Mohamed Najeeb Bannan stated "The legal reference is the Islamic Sharia. The cases are different, from robberies to drug use, to moral crimes. It's our duty to look at any crime that comes to us. . . After the regime has fallen, we believe that the Muslim majority in Syria will ask for an Islamic state. Of course, it's very important to point out that some say the Islamic Sharia will cut off people's hands and heads, but it only applies to criminals. And to start off by killing, crucifying etc. That is not correct at all." In response to being asked what the difference between the Islamic Front's and ISIL's version of sharia would be, he said "One of their mistakes is before the regime has fallen, and before they've established what in Sharia is called Tamkeen [having a stable state], they started applying Sharia, thinking God gave them permission to control the land and establish a Caliphate. This goes against the beliefs of religious scholars around the world. This is what [IS] did wrong. This is going to cause a lot of trouble. Anyone who opposes [IS] will be considered against Sharia and will be severely punished."[419][420]

Al-Qaeda/Al-Nusra has been trying to take advantage of ISIL's rise by trying to present itself as "moderate" compared to "extremist" ISIL while it has the same aim of establishing sharia and a caliphate but doing it in a more gradual manner.[421][422][423][424][425]

The leader of Al-Qaeda Ayman al-Zawahiri called for the use of consultation (shura) within the "prophetic method" to be used when establishing the caliphate, criticizing Baghdadi for not following the required steps, Zawahiri called upon ISIL members to close ranks and join Al-Qaeda to fight against Assad, Shia, Russia, Europe, and America and stop the infighting between jihadist groups, calling for jihadists to establish Islamic entities in Egypt and the Levant, slowling implementing Sharia before establishing a caliphate and calling for violent assaults against America and the West.[426]

Al-Qaeda's branch in Syria Al Nusrah criticized the way ISIL fully and immediately instituted Sharia since it alienated people too much, with a gradual, slower approach favored by Al-Qaeda by preparing society to accept it and indoctrinating people through education before implementing the hudud aspects of Sharia like tossing gays off buildings, chopping limbs off, and public stoning which Al-Qaeda agrees should ultimately be implemented in the long run.[167]

A massacre of Druze at the hands of Al-Qaeda affiliate Al-Nusra Front took place in June 2015 in Idlib. Nusrah issued an apology after the incident. Foreign Policy noted that there is absolutely no reference to the Druze in Al-Nusra's "apology", since Al-Nusrah forced the Druze to renounce their religion, destroyed their shrines and now considers them Sunni.[427][428][429] Nusra and ISIL are both against the Druze, the difference being the that Nusra is apparently satisfied with destroying Druze shrines and making them become Sunnis while ISIL wants to violently annihilate them like it did to Yazidis.[430]

The Jaysh al-Islam group within the Islamic Front criticized ISIL, saying: "They killed the people of Islam and leave the idol worshippers" (يقتلون أهل الإسلام ويدعون أهل الأوثان) and "They use the verses talking about the disbelievers and implement it on the Muslims" (ينزلون أيات نزلت في الكفار على المسلمين).[431] The main criticism of defectors from ISIL is that the group is killing and fighting other Sunni Muslims, unhappy that other Sunnis like Jabhat al-Nusra (Al-Qaeda) are being attacked by ISIL.[432] Many defectors from ISIL did not care about non-Sunnis being brutalized, rather they were outraged by the fact that other Sunnis were being subjected to brutality and were upset that other Sunnis were being targeted by ISIL.[433] The defectors did not mention the rape and slaughter inflicted upon Yazidis and only mentioned crimes against Sunnis as the reason they defected from ISIL.[434]

The current Grand Imam of al-Azhar and former president of al-Azhar University, Ahmed el-Tayeb has strongly condemned the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant stating that is acting "under the guise of this holy religion and have given themselves the name 'Islamic State' in an attempt to export their false Islam"[435][436] and (citing the Quran) that: "The punishment for those who wage war against God and his Prophet and who strive to sow corruption on earth is death, crucifixion, the severing of hands and feet on opposite sides or banishment from the land. This is the disgrace for them in this world and in the hereafter they will receive grievous torment." Although El-Tayeb has been criticized for not expressly stating that the Islamic State was heretical,[437][438] the Ash'ari school of Islamic theology - to which El-Tayeb belongs - does not allow calling a person who follows the shahada an apostate.[437] El-Tayeb has strongly come out against the practice of takfirism (declaring a Muslim an apostate) which is used by the Islamic State to "judge and accuse anyone who doesn’t tow their line with apostasy and outside the realm of the faith" declaring "Jihad on peaceful Muslims" using "flawed interpretations of some Qur’anic texts, the prophet’s Sunna, and the Imams’ views believing incorrectly, that they are leaders of Muslim armies fighting infidel peoples, in unbelieving lands."[439]

Mehdi Hasan, a political journalist in the UK, said in the New Statesman, "Whether Sunni or Shia, Salafi or Sufi, conservative or liberal, Muslims – and Muslim leaders – have almost unanimously condemned and denounced ISIL not merely as un-Islamic but actively anti-Islamic."[440]

Hassan Hassan, an analyst at the Delma Institute, wrote in The Guardian that because the Islamic State "bases its teachings on religious texts that mainstream Muslim clerics do not want to deal with head on, new recruits leave the camp feeling that they have stumbled on the true message of Islam".[180] In mid-February 2015, Graeme Wood, a lecturer in political science at Yale University, said in The Atlantic, "The religion preached by its most ardent followers derives from coherent and even learned interpretations of Islam."[188]

International criticism

The group has attracted widespread criticism internationally for its extremism, from governments and international bodies such as the United Nations and Amnesty International. On 24 September 2014, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon stated: "As Muslim leaders around the world have said, groups like ISIL – or Da’ish – have nothing to do with Islam, and they certainly do not represent a state. They should more fittingly be called the 'Un-Islamic Non-State'."[441] The group was described as a cult in a Huffington Post column by notable cult authority Steven Hassan.[442]

Criticism of the name "Islamic State" and "caliphate" declaration

The group's declaration of a new caliphate in June 2014 and adoption of the name "Islamic State" have been criticised and ridiculed by Muslim scholars and rival Islamists both inside and outside the territory it controls.[64][65][66][443] In a speech in September 2014, President Obama said that ISIL is not "Islamic" on the basis that no religion condones the killing of innocents and that no government [67][68][69][70][444][445][446] and other countries generally call the group "ISIL", while much of the Arab world uses the Arabic acronym "Dāʻish". France's Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said "This is a terrorist group and not a state. I do not recommend using the term Islamic State because it blurs the lines between Islam, Muslims, and Islamists. The Arabs call it 'Daesh' and I will be calling them the 'Daesh cutthroats.'"[447] Retired general John Allen, the U.S. envoy appointed to co-ordinate the coalition, U.S. military Lieutenant General James Terry, head of operations against the group, and Secretary of State John Kerry had all shifted toward use of the term DAESH by December 2014.[448]

Battle of Kobani

In late August 2014, a leading Islamic educational institution, Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah in Egypt, advised Muslims to stop calling the group "Islamic State" and instead refer to it as "Al-Qaeda Separatists in Iraq and Syria" or "QSIS", because of the militant group's "un-Islamic character".[449][450] When addressing the United Nations Security Council in September 2014, Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott summarised the widespread objections to the name "Islamic State" thus: "To use this term [Islamic State] is to dignify a death cult; a death cult that, in declaring itself a caliphate, has declared war on the world".[451] The group is very sensitive about its name. "They will cut your tongue out even if you call them ISIS – you have to say 'Islamic State'", said a woman in ISIL-controlled Mosul.[452]

In mid-October 2014, representatives of the Islamic Society of Britain, the Association of British Muslims and the UK's Association of Muslim Lawyers proposed that "'Un-Islamic State' (UIS) could be an accurate and fair alternative name to describe this group and its agenda", further stating, "We need to work together and make sure that these fanatics don't get the propaganda that they feed off."[453][454] The "Islamic State" is mocked on social media websites such as Twitter and YouTube, with the use of hashtags, mock recruiting ads, fake news articles and YouTube videos.[455] One parody, by a Palestinian TV satire show, portrays ISIL as "buffoon-like hypocrites", and has had more than half a million views on YouTube.[455][456]

In the media

By 2014, ISIL was increasingly being viewed as a militia rather than a terrorist group.[457] As major Iraqi cities fell to ISIL in June 2014, Jessica Lewis, a former U.S. Army intelligence officer at the Institute for the Study of War, described ISIL as "not a terrorism problem anymore", but rather "an army on the move in Iraq and Syria, and they are taking terrain. They have shadow governments in and around Baghdad, and they have an aspirational goal to govern. I don't know whether they want to control Baghdad, or if they want to destroy the functions of the Iraqi state, but either way the outcome will be disastrous for Iraq." Lewis has called ISIL "an advanced military leadership". She said, "They have incredible command and control and they have a sophisticated reporting mechanism from the field that can relay tactics and directives up and down the line. They are well-financed, and they have big sources of manpower, not just the foreign fighters, but also prisoner escapees."[457]

While officials fear that ISIL may inspire attacks in the United States from sympathisers or those returning after joining ISIL, U.S. intelligence agencies have found no specific plots or any immediate threat. Former U.S. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel saw an "imminent threat to every interest we have", but former top counter-terrorism adviser Daniel Benjamin has derided such alarmist talk as a "farce" that panics the public.[458]

Former British Foreign Secretary David Miliband concluded that the 2003 invasion of Iraq caused the creation of ISIL.[459]

Some news commentators, such as international newspaper columnist Gwynne Dyer,[460] and samples of American public opinion, such as surveys by NPR,[461] have advocated a strong but measured response to ISIL's recent provocative acts. Writing for The Guardian, Pankaj Mishra rejects that the group is a resurgence of medieval Islam and rather expresses that, "In actuality, Isis is the canniest of all traders in the flourishing international economy of disaffection: the most resourceful among all those who offer the security of collective identity to isolated and fearful individuals. It promises, along with others who retail racial, national and religious supremacy, to release the anxiety and frustrations of the private life into the violence of the global."[462]

Conspiracy theories

Conspiracy theorists in the Arab world have advanced rumours that the U.S. is secretly behind the existence and emboldening of ISIL, as part of an attempt to further destabilise the Middle East. After such rumours became widespread, the U.S. embassy in Lebanon issued an official statement denying the allegations, calling them a complete fabrication.[463] Others are convinced that ISIL leader al-Baghdadi is an Israeli Mossad agent and actor called Simon Elliot. The rumours claim that NSA documents leaked by Edward Snowden reveal this connection. Snowden's lawyer has called the story "a hoax."[464]

According to The New York Times, many in the Middle East believe that an alliance of the United States, Israel, and Saudi Arabia is directly responsible for the creation of ISIL. Egyptian, Tunisian, Palestinian, Jordanian and Lebanese news organizations have reported on the conspiracy theory.[465][466]

Countries and groups at war with ISIL

ISIL's expanding claims to territory have brought it into armed conflict with many governments, militias and other armed groups. International rejection of ISIL as a terrorist entity and rejection of its claim to even exist have placed it in conflict with countries around the world.

Opposition within Asia and Africa

Iraq and the Levant Africa Other Asia

Iraq-based opponents

Iraqi Armed Forces

Iraqi Kurdistan

Popular Mobilization Forces

Iraqi Turkmen Front[470]

Shabak Militia[471]

Other Levant-based opponents

Lebanese Armed Forces[473]

Jordanian Armed Forces[474]

Turkish Armed Forces[475]

Syria-based opponents
Syrian Armed Forces[476]

National Defence Force

Ba'ath Brigades

Syrian Resistance

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command

Palestine Liberation Army

Fatah al-Intifada

Liwa Abu al-Fadhal al-Abbas

Syrian Opposition[477][478][479]

Syrian Kurdistan[481]


  • al-Nusra Front[485] with localised truces and co-operation at times[486]

North Africa-based opponents

Egyptian Armed Forces[487]

Libyan Armed Forces

Abu Salim Martyrs Brigade (Libyan militia)[490]

Fajr Libya battalion (Libyan militia)[491]

Algerian Armed Forces[492]

West Africa-based opponents

Nigerian Armed Forces[157]
Niger Armed Forces[493]
Chadian Armed Forces[494]
Cameroonian Armed Forces[493]
Benin Armed Forces[493]

Arabian peninsula-based opponents

Yemeni Armed Forces[147]
Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia[495]
Bahrain Defence Force
Kuwaiti Armed Forces
Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces
Union Defence Force (UAE)[496]
al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula[147]

South Asia-based opponents
Afghan Armed Forces[148]
Indian Armed Forces [498]
Pakistan Armed Forces[501][502]

Southeast Asia-based opponents
Indonesian National Armed Forces[503]
Malaysian Armed Forces[503]
Armed Forces of the Philippines[135][504][505]
Singapore Armed Forces[503]
Royal Thai Armed Forces[503]

The Global Coalition to Counter the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

Airstrikes in Syria by 24 September 2014

The Global Coalition to Counter the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also referred to as the Counter-ISIL Coalition or Counter-DAESH Coalition,[506] is a US-led group of nations and non-state actors that have committed to "work together under a common, multifaceted, and long-term strategy to degrade and defeat ISIL/Daesh". According to a joint statement issued by 59 national governments and the European Union on 3 December 2014, participants in the Counter-ISIL Coalition are focused on multiple lines of effort:[507]

  1. Supporting military operations, capacity building, and training;
  2. Stopping the flow of foreign terrorist fighters;
  3. Cutting off ISIL/Daesh's access to financing and funding;
  4. Addressing associated humanitarian relief and crises; and
  5. Exposing ISIL/Daesh's true nature (ideological delegitimisation).

Operation Inherent Resolve is the operational name given by the US to military operations against ISIL and Syrian al-Qaeda affiliates. Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF–OIR) is co-ordinating the military portion of the response.

The following multi-national organisations are part of the Counter-ISIL Coalition:[507]
 Arab League — coordinating member response[508]
 European Union – declared to be part, 27 members are participating, Malta not participating;[507]
 NATO – all 28 members are taking part;

Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf

or GCC – all six current members and the two pending members, Jordan and Morocco, are taking part.

Military operations in or over Iraq and/or Syria
airstrikes, air support, and ground forces performing training
Supplying military equipment to opposition forces
within Iraq and/or Syria in co-operation with EU/NATO/partners
Humanitarian and other contributions
to identified coalition objectives

NATO members:

  •  United States [509][510][511]
  •  Belgium[509]
  •  Canada[509]
  •  Denmark[509]
  •  France[509]
  •  Germany[509][512]
  •  Italy[509]
  •  Netherlands[513]
  •  Norway[514]
  •  Portugal[507][515]
  •  Spain[516]
  •  Turkey [509][517][518]
  •  United Kingdom[509][519]

CCASG members and pending members:

  •  Bahrain[512]
  •  Jordan (pending CCASG member)[474][512]
  •  Morocco[520][521][507] (pending CCASG member)
  •  Saudi Arabia[133]
  •  UAE[512]


  •  Australia[509]
  •  New Zealand[507][522] (humanitarian aid and Iraqi Army training)[512][523][524]
  •  Singapore[525] (announced)

Part of the anti-ISIL coalition engaged in anti-ISIL military operations within their own borders[507]

  •  Iraq[512]
  •  Lebanon[512]
  •  Egypt[512]

Note: Listed countries in this box may also be supplying military and humanitarian aid, and contributing to group objectives in other ways.

NATO members: (also EU members except Albania)

  •  Albania[526]
  •  Bulgaria[527]
  •  Croatia[528]
  •  Czech Republic[512][513]
  •  Estonia[512][513]
  •  Greece[529]
  •  Hungary[512][513]
  •  Poland[509]

 European Union members (not in NATO)

  •  Cyprus[530]

 Bosnia and Herzegovina[531]

Note: These countries may also be supplying humanitarian aid and contributing to group objectives in other ways.

NATO members: (who are also EU members, except Iceland)

  •  Czech Republic[507]
  •  Iceland[507]
  •  Latvia[507]
  •  Lithuania[507]
  •  Luxembourg[507] (humanitarian aid)[512]
  •  Romania[507]
  •  Slovakia[507] (humanitarian aid)[512]
  •  Slovenia[507]

 European Union members (not in NATO)

  •  Austria[507] (humanitarian aid)
  •  Finland[532][533]
  •  Ireland[507] (humanitarian aid)
  •  Sweden[507] (humanitarian aid)[512]

CCASG members:

  •  Kuwait[507] (humanitarian aid,[512] airbase use)
  •  Oman[507]


  •  Georgia[507][512]
  •  Japan[507] (humanitarian aid)[512]
  •  South Korea[507] (humanitarian aid)[512]
  •  Kosovo[507]
  •  Macedonia[507]
  •  Moldova[507]
  •  Montenegro[507]
  •  Serbia[507]
  •  Somalia[507]
  •   Switzerland (humanitarian aid)[512]
  •  Taiwan[507]
  •  Ukraine[507]

Other state opponents not part of the Counter-ISIL Coalition

 Iran[534][535] – ground troops, training and air power (see Iranian intervention in Iraq)

 Russia[536][537] – arms supplier to Iraqi and Syrian governments. In June 2014, the Iraqi army received Russian Sukhoi Su-25 and Sukhoi Su-30 fighter aircraft to combat the Islamic State.[538] Security operations within state borders in 2015.[539][540] Airstrikes in Syria (see Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War).[541] [542][543]

 Azerbaijan[544][545] – security operations within state borders

 Pakistan – Military deployment over Saudi Arabia-Iraq border. Arresting ISIL figures in Pakistan.[546][547][548]

Other non-state opponents


Kurdistan Workers' Party—ground troops in Iraqi Kurdistan and in Syrian Kurdistan[552]
Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan—ground troops in Iraqi Kurdistan[552]
Houthis—Shia faction in Yemen, fighting for control of the country[497]


Al-Nusra Front is a branch of al-Qaeda operating in Syria. Al-Nusra launched many attacks and bombings, mostly against targets affiliated with or supportive of the Syrian government.[553] There were media reports that many of al-Nusra's foreign fighters had left to join al-Baghdadi's ISIL.[554]

In February 2014, after continued tensions, al-Qaeda publicly disavowed any relations with ISIL,[41] but ISIL and al-Nusra Front are still able to occasionally cooperate with each other when they fight against the Syrian government.[555][556][557] Quartz's managing edtior Bobby Ghosh wrote:

The two groups share a nihilistic worldview, a loathing for modernity, and for the West. They subscribe to the same perverted interpretations of Islam. Other common traits include a penchant for suicide attacks, and sophisticated exploitation of the internet and social media. Like ISIL, several Al Qaeda franchises are interested in taking and holding territory; AQAP has been much less successful at it. The main differences between Al Qaeda and ISIL are largely political—and personal. Over the past decade, Al Qaeda has twice embraced ISIL (and its previous manifestations) as brothers-in-arms.[558]

On 10 September 2015, an audio message was released by Al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri that criticized the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant's self-proclaimed caliphate and accused them of "sedition", described by some media outlets as a "declaration of war".[559] However, although he denied their legitimacy, Zawahiri suggested that there was still room for cooperation against common enemies and said that if he were in Iraq, he would fight alongside them.[560]


Iraq and Syria nationals

According to Reuters, 90% of ISIL's fighters in Iraq are Iraqi, and 70% of its fighters in Syria are Syrian. The article, citing "jihadist ideologues" as the source, stated that the group has 40,000 fighters and 60,000 supporters across its two primary strongholds in Iraq and Syria.[25]

Foreign nationals

According to a report to the UN Security Council filed in late March 2015, 22,000 foreign fighters from 100 nations have travelled to Syria and Iraq, most to support ISIL. It warned that Syria and Iraq had become a "finishing school for extremists".[561] In mid-2014, ISIL's leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi had issued a call, "Rush O Muslims to your state ...".[562]

A UN report from May 2015 shows that 25,000 "foreign terrorist fighters" from 100 countries have joined "Islamist" groups, many of them working for ISIL or al-Qaeda.[563]

Groups with expressions of support

One source (Terrorism Research and Analysis Consortium (TRAC)) has identified 60 jihadist groups in 30 countries that have pledged allegiance or support to ISIL as of mid-November 2014. Many of these groups were previously affiliated with al-Qaeda, indicating a shift in global jihadist leadership toward ISIL.[564]

Memberships of the following groups have declared support for ISIL, either fully or in part.

Allegations of Turkish support

Turkey has long been accused by experts, Syrian Kurds, and even U.S. Vice-President Turkish intelligence services and ISIL, although the "exact nature of the relationship ... remains cloudy".[584] David L. Phillips of Columbia University's Institute for the Study of Human Rights, who compiled a list of allegations and claims accusing Turkey of assisting ISIL, writes that these allegations "range from military cooperation and weapons transfers to logistical support, financial assistance, and the provision of medical services".[585] Several ISIL fighters and commanders have claimed that Turkey supports ISIL.[586][587][588] Within Turkey itself, ISIL is believed to have caused increasing political polarisation between secularists and Islamists.[589]

In July 2015, a raid by US special forces on a compound housing the Islamic State's "chief financial officer", Abu Sayyaf, produced evidence that Turkish officials directly dealt with ranking ISIS members. According to a senior Western official, documents and flash drives seized during the Sayyaf raid revealed links "so clear" and "undeniable" between Turkey and ISIS "that they could end up having profound policy implications for the relationship between us and Ankara".[581]

Turkey has been further criticised for allowing individuals from outside the region to enter its territory and join ISIL in Syria.[590][591] With many Islamist fighters passing through Turkey to fight in Syria, Turkey has been accused of becoming a transit country for such fighters and has been labelled the "Gateway to Jihad".[592] Turkish border patrol officers are reported to have deliberately overlooked those entering Syria, upon payment of a small bribe.[592] A report by Sky News exposed documents showing that passports of foreign Islamists wanting to join ISIL by crossing into Syria had been stamped by the Turkish government.[593] An ISIL commander stated that "most of the fighters who joined us in the beginning of the war came via Turkey, and so did our equipment and supplies",[585][588] adding that ISIL fighters received treatment in Turkish hospitals.[588]

Allegations of Qatari support

The State of Qatar has long been accused of acting as a conduit for the flow of funds to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. While there is no proof that the Qatari government is behind the movement of funds from the gas-rich nation to ISIL, it has been criticized for not doing enough to stem the flow of financing. Private donors within Qatar, sympathetic to the aims of radical groups such as

  • "Iraq updates", Understanding war (  
  • "The New War in Iraq ISIL Overview", Midwest Diplomacy, 21 September 2013 .
  • This Is the Promise of Allah (PDF) (declaration), The Islamic State, 29 June 2014 .
  • Frontline: Losing Iraq (July 2014), The Rise of ISIS (October 2014), Obama at War (May 2015), Escaping ISIS (July 2015), documentaries by PBS
  • The Islamic State - Full Length, documentary by Vice News (August 2014)
  • "ISIS: Portrait of a Jihadi Terrorist Organization" – Report by the Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center.
  • From Chechnya To Syria & Analysis of Russian-speaking Foreign Fighters in Syria
  • Operation Inherent Resolve airstrike updates
  • ISIL frontline maps (Iraq and Syria)
  • The Islamic State – Jihadology Research project by Aaron Zelin
  • ISIL and Antiquities Trafficking - FBI Warns Dealers, Collectors About Terrorist Loot, FBI

External links

  • Abass, Ademola (2014). Complete International Law: Text, Cases and Materials (2nd ed.). Oxford:  
  • Fishman, Brian (2008). "Using the Mistakes of al Qaeda's Franchises to Undermine Its Strategies". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 618: 46–54.  
  • Kahl, Colin H. (2008). "When to Leave Iraq: Walk Before Running". Foreign Affairs 87 (4): 151–154.  
  • Phillips, Andrew (2009). "How al Qaeda lost Iraq" (PDF). Australian Journal of International Affairs 63 (1): 64–84.  
  • Simon, Steven (2008). "The Price of the Surge: How U.S. Strategy Is Hastening Iraq's Demise". Foreign Affairs 87 (3): 57–72, 74–76.  
  • Isis: the inside story. "One of the Islamic State's senior commanders reveals details of the terror group's origins inside an Iraqi prison." The Guardian
  • Wood, Graeme (March 2015). What ISIS Really Wants. "The Islamic State is no mere collection of psychopaths. It is a religious group with carefully considered beliefs, among them that it is a key agent of the coming apocalypse. Here's what that means for its strategy—and for how to stop it." The Atlantic


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