World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Lupinus arboreus

Article Id: WHEBN0000445538
Reproduction Date:

Title: Lupinus arboreus  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Lupinus, Fabaceae, Abbotts Lagoon, Coastal Strand, Yellow-eyed penguin
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Lupinus arboreus

Lupinus arboreus
Inflorescence of Lupinus arboreus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Genisteae
Genus: Lupinus
Subgenus: Platycarpos
Species: L. arboreus
Binomial name
Lupinus arboreus
Sims

Lupinus arboreus, yellow bush lupine (USA) or tree lupin (UK), is a species of flowering plant in the legume family Fabaceae.

Contents

  • Distribution 1
  • Description 2
  • Invasive species 3
  • Cultivation 4
    • Related shrub species 4.1
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Distribution

The shrub is endemic to California,[1][2] where it is widely distributed among coastal sage scrub and sand dunes. Because it has been widely introduced in the state, there is some uncertainty about its native range. It is thought to be native from Point Reyes National Seashore south to San Luis Obispo County.[3]

Description

Lupinus arboreus is an evergreen shrub growing to 2 m (7 ft) tall (hence the alternative common name, tree lupine) in sheltered situations, but more typically 1–1.5 m (3–5 ft) tall. It is capable of tolerating temperatures down to -12 °C and living for up to seven years.

It has green to gray-green palmate leaves, with 5-12 leaflets per leaf. The leaflets are 2–6 centimetres (0.79–2.36 in) long, often sparsely covered with fine silky hairs.

In spring it bears many racemes, 30 cm (12 in) long, of fragrant, soft yellow, pea-like flowers.[1][4] Both yellow and lilac to purple flowering forms are known. However, the yellow form is more common, except in the north of the species' range.

Invasive species

It has escaped from cultivation to become an invasive species in many areas.[5] Outside of its native range in central and northern coastal California, it can become invasive southwards in Southern California and Baja California, and northwards in the coastal Pacific Northwest and British Columbia. It is an introduced species in western Europe, Australia (a potential noxious weed), New Zealand, the Turkish Anatolian Aegean Region, and southern South America including the Falkland Islands.

Like many members of the Fabaceae, it is an effective fixer of nitrogen in the soil. Where it has been introduced, it changes the chemistry of the soil, and therefore allows other exotics to establish themselves, to the detriment of native plants adapted to low nitrogen levels. It also hybridizes with other lupine species outside its range, such as Lupinus littoralis (seashore lupin) and Lupinus rivularis (riverbank lupin), further endangering the survival of those native ecosystem integrated species.

Yellow Bush Lupine in flower

Cultivation

The yellow-flowering form of Lupinus arboreus is widely grown as an ornamental plant, for its attractive flowers in traditional, native plant, and wildlife gardens. It is also to bind drifting sand dunes. It can be seen growing in cracks in vertical stone walls, due to the sharp drainage.

It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[6]

Related shrub species

In addition to the numerous annual and perennial lupines, some other Lupine species also naturally grow as shrubs, including:[7]

References

  1. ^ a b Lupinus arboreusJepson:
  2. ^ Webb, D.A., Parnell, J. and Doogue, D. 1996. An Irish Flora. Dundalgan Press Ltd. Dundalk.ISBN 0-85221-131-7
  3. ^ Tim Johnson (1999). "CRC Ethnobotany Desk Reference".  
  4. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136.  
  5. ^ UCDavis.edu: California Invasive Plant Council report on yellow bush lupine
  6. ^ "Lupinus arboreus"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  7. ^ Koti.mbnet.fi: Classification of Lupins

External links

  • (yellow bush lupine, coastal bush lupine)Lupinus arboreusCalflora Database:
  • Lupinus arboreusJepson Manual eFlora (TJM2) treatment of
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.