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March of Dimes

March Of Dimes
Formation January 3, 1938
Headquarters White Plains, New York, U.S.
President Jennifer L. Howse

The March of Dimes Foundation is a United States

  • Official website

External links

  1. ^ "One day...all babies will be born healthy: Annual report 2009". March of Dimes Foundation. Retrieved November 11, 2010. 
  2. ^ "March of Dimes Website". Retrieved November 5, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Baby Talk: March of Dimes Rebrands". Adweek. Retrieved November 11, 2010. 
  4. ^  
  5. ^ a b c d e Baghdady, Maddock J. (Spring 2008). "Marching to a Different Mission". Stanford Social Innovation Review: 60–65. Retrieved November 11, 2010. 
  6. ^ Oshinsky, David. Polio: an American Story. Oxford University Press. p. 65.  
  7. ^ Katz, Michael. "A Genetic Pioneer Focused On Child Health Challenges." Nature Neuroscience 9.10 (Oct. 2006): PsycINFO. Web. 21 Dec. 2011.
  8. ^ Bustos, Joseph. "Volunteers march on." The Daily Gazette (Sterling, IL) 07 Apr. 2008: Newspaper Source Plus. Web. 21 Dec. 2011.
  9. ^ Siegel M, Fuerst HT, Guinee VF (1971). "Rubella epidemicity and embryopath. Results of a long-term prospective study." 121 (6). pp. 469–73. 
  10. ^ "The Virginia Apgar Papers". National Library of Medicine Profiles in Science website. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  11. ^ "And Down Will Come Baby".  
  12. ^ "Science Daily". Congenital Rubella Nearly Eradicated in United States. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  13. ^ a b c d "AAP Policy Statement: Levels of Neonatal Care. PEDIATRICS". American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). 5 114: 1341–1347. November 2004. Retrieved October 11, 2011. 
  14. ^ "March of Dimes Prematurity". March of Dimes Prematurity. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  15. ^ McGann, E. "Staff-Family Communications in the NICU: An Expert Interview with Liza Cooper". Medscape Medical News. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Hospital Announces Partnership". Topeka Capital Journal. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  17. ^ Hikel, K (2009). Preventing Prematurity: An Expert Interview With Alan R. Fleischman, M.D.. Medscape Ob/Gyn & Women's Health. 
  18. ^ Freda, MC (March–April 2010). "Quality: Fashionable Again". The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 2 35: 69.  
  19. ^ "Experts to Review Quality Improvement Programs to Prevent Preterm Birth". Playground Gazette. Retrieved November 4, 2010. 
  20. ^ "National Institutes of Health". MedLine Plus Website. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  21. ^ Caley, Linda, M., Sara Riemer, and Helen, S. Weinstein. "Results Of A Nurse-Led Workshop Designed To Prevent Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder." Public Health Nursing 27.3 (May/Jun. 2010): 232-239. CINAHL with Full Text. Web. 21 Dec. 2011.
  22. ^ K Kyndely, et al. "Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevention: An Exploratory Study Of Women's Use Of, Attitudes Toward, And Knowledge About Alcohol." Journal Of The American Academy Of Nurse Practitioners 17.5 (May 2005): 187-193. CINAHL with Full Text. Web. 21 Dec. 2011.
  23. ^ "And Down Will Come Baby".  
  24. ^ Paddock, Richard C. "Alcohol Warning Label Bill Is Derailed in Legislature." Los Angeles Times 23 May 1987. 23 May 1987. Web. 21 Dec. 2011.
  25. ^ Nobrega, S. "Building a sustainable infrastructure for statewide folic acid education: The March of Dimes National Folic Acid Campaign". American Public Health Association Meeting. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  26. ^ Robison, J. "More Women Aware of 'Pre'-Prenatal vitamin". Retrieved November 5, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Use of Supplements Containing Folic Acid Among Women of Childbearing Age -- United States, 2007". CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 1 57: 5–8. 11 January 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2010. 
  28. ^ Painter, K (January 20, 2008). "A little slice of folic acid can help prevent birth defects". USA Today. Retrieved November 5, 2010. 
  29. ^ "New Folic Acid Seal Helps Women Choose Enriched Grain Foods To Help Prevent Birth Defects". Science Daily. January 15, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2010. 
  30. ^ Allen & Green (2004). "March of Dimes Prematurity Campaign: A Call to Action". J Natl Med Assoc. 96: 686–688.  
  31. ^ "Prematurity Campaign Report and Future Recommendations". March of Dimes Foundation. 2008. 
  32. ^ "U.S. Gets a 'D' for Preterm Birth Rates". U.S. News & World Report. November 12, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2010. 
  33. ^ "March of Dimes Website". Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  34. ^ Bern, S. "Expanding newborn screening: From advocacy to program implementation". American Public Health Association website. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  35. ^ "The March of Dimes Release Annual Report Card on Newborn Screening Program: A Newsmaker Interview with Jennifer Howse, PhD". Medscape Medical News. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  36. ^ Berns, S. "Expanding newborn screening: From advocacy to program implementation". American Public Health Association. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  37. ^ "Science Daily". Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  38. ^ "CBO - H.R. 1281". Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  39. ^ a b "Newborn Screening Saves Lives Reauthorization Act". March of Dimes. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  40. ^ Ault, A (February 1, 2007). "Despite Congressional Fix, SCHIP Faces Shortfalls". Internal Medicine News. Retrieved November 11, 2010. 
  41. ^ Levey, N (February 5, 2009). "Obama signs into law expansion of SCHIP health-care program for children". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 11, 2010. 
  42. ^ Hibbard, S (February 19, 2009). "Speaking for SCHIP". Springfield Connection. Retrieved November 11, 2010. 
  43. ^ Laurence, J (31 January 2006). "Mediterranean Diet Reduces Birth Defects". The Independent. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  44. ^ "1 Million "Preemie" Babies Die Each Year". U.S. News & World Report. October 4, 2009. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  45. ^ Strom, S (January 17, 2008). "March of Dimes Renames a Fund-Raiser". New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 2010. 
  46. ^ "North Dakota Family Picked as March for Babies Ambassadors". The Bismarck Tribune. March 8, 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2010. 
  47. ^ Rose, D (2003). March of Dimes. Arcadia Publishing. p. 121.  
  48. ^ "Children's Medical Center, March of Dimes Team Up for March for Babies event in Dallas". The Dallas Morning News. April 12, 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2010. 
  49. ^ "March for Babies". Retrieved November 9, 2010. 
  50. ^ "March for Babies". Retrieved November 9, 2010. 
  51. ^ a b "'Sounds of Pertussis'" Campaign Makes Times Square Pit Stop." PR Newswire US 11 Aug. 2011: Newspaper Source Plus. Web. 21 Dec. 2011.
  52. ^ Brady, S. "Health Care Salutes: Sounds of Pertussis Campaign". Health News. Retrieved November 10, 2010. 
  53. ^ "Sounds of Pertussis Campaign". Retrieved November 10, 2010. 
  54. ^ "Sound Off About Pertussis". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 5, 2010. 
  55. ^ "Healthy Babies are Worth the Wait®". WSAV. April 7, 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  56. ^ Rubin, R (May 11, 2010). "Premature Birth Rate Drops 2nd Year in a Row, CDC Finds". USA Today. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  57. ^ "Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Service press release". 27 March 2007. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  58. ^ Young, J. (January 2008). "Medical Web Watch". Southern Medical Journal 101 (1): 110. Retrieved November 5, 2010. 
  59. ^ "PREEMIE Reauthorization Act (S. 252/H.R. 541)". March of Dimes. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  60. ^ "Bio of Doctor Virginia Apgar, Changing The Face of Medicine Website". Retrieved November 11, 2010. 
  61. ^ "March of Crimes: A website run by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals". Retrieved April 17, 2008. 
  62. ^
  63. ^ Greenwald, Howard P. (2007). Organizations: Management Without Control. Sage Publications, Inc. p. 369.  
  64. ^ "Charity Navigator Rating - March of Dimes". Retrieved 2014-08-10. 
  65. ^ "Charity Navigator 2012 CEO Compensation Study". November 2012. Retrieved 2014-03-30. 


Another criticism has been that President Jennifer Howse's compensation is high. In 2011 the March of Dimes 990 reported it was $545,982. In 2012 her compensation was reduced to $526,679. In a separate Charity Navigator Report entitled 2012 CEO Compensation,[65] they reported that CEO salaries in the Northeast and Pacific West are higher than in other parts of the country. The report also outlines that larger charities compensate their CEO's much better than smaller charities. The median CEO salary in 2012 for $200–500 million a year charities is $418,324 (page 6), making Jennifer Howse's compensation about 25% higher than the median.

This gives the March of Dimes a merged score of 74.93, leading to their two star status. [64]

In his book Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, sociologist Professor James M. Henslin describes March of Dimes as a bureaucracy that has taken on a life of its own through a classic example of a process called goal displacement. Faced with redundancy after Jonas Salk discovered the polio vaccine, it adopted a new mission, "fighting birth defects", which was recently changed to a vaguer goal of "breakthrough for babies", rather than disbanding.[62][63]


Animal rights organizations have raised concerns about March of Dimes-funded medical research involving animals.[61] The foundation states it supports the use of non-animal research alternatives wherever possible.


  • Virginia Apgar, M.D., the creator of the Apgar Score, joined the March of Dimes in 1959 and eventually served as vice president for medical affairs[60]

Notable staff

Legislation supported

The March of Dimes Perinatal Data Center includes the PeriStats Web site, which provides free access to U.S., state, county, and city maternal and infant health data.[58]

Perinatal Data Center

In 2007, the March of Dimes, the Johnson & Johnson Pediatric Institute, and the Kentucky Department for Public Health partnered with six Kentucky hospitals to launch “Healthy Babies Are Worth the Wait,” a health promotion and prematurity prevention initiative intended to reduce the rate of preventable preterm births in targeted areas of Kentucky.[55][56] The primary goal of Healthy Babies Are Worth the Wait is a 15 percent reduction in the rate of singleton (one baby) preterm births in these targeted areas.[57]

Healthy Babies are Worth the Wait

Once rare in the United States, cases of pertussis (whooping cough) are appearing across the country with greater frequency.[51] To address this issue, the March of Dimes and Sanofi Pasteur launched a national education campaign in 2010 called "Sounds of Pertussis" to raise awareness about the seriousness of pertussis and the need for adult vaccination to prevent infecting babies.[51][52] NASCAR driver Jeff Gordon is a national spokesperson for the campaign.[53] The campaign recently sponsored a song-writing contest called Sound Off About Pertussis, which was won by Maria Bennett with her original song, "Give Pertussis a Whooping."[54]

Sounds of Pertussis

According to the March of Dimes, March for Babies is held in more than 900 communities across the nation. Every year, 1 million people—including 20,000 company teams, family teams and national sponsors—participate in the event, which has raised more than $1.8 billion since 1970.[49] The March of Dimes states that seventy-six cents of every dollar raised in March for Babies is spent on research and programs to help prevent premature birth, birth defects and infant mortality.[50]

Established in 1970, the [47] Funds raised by the event support March of Dimes-sponsored research and other programs to prevent premature birth, birth defects and infant mortality.[48]

March for Babies

In 2009, the March of Dimes partnered with the Department of Reproductive Health and Research of the Africa, followed by North America (Canada and the United States combined).[44]

White paper on prematurity

The March of Dimes published their Global Report on Birth Defects in 2006, which estimated birth defects' global burden.[43]

Global Report on Birth Defects

The March of Dimes has lobbied the United States' Congress to support the continuation of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 2007 and 2009. SCHIP is a program that provides health insurance to 11 million low-income children and pregnant women. March of Dimes partnered with the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the National Association of Children's Hospitals (NACH) on the issue.[40][41][42]

SCHIP reauthorization

The March for Dimes supported the [39] The March of Dimes described the bill as reauthorizing "critical federal activities that assist states in improving and expanding their newborn screening programs, supporting parents and provider newborns screening education, and ensuring laboratory quality and surveillance."[39]

In 2005, only 38 percent of infants were born in states that required screening for 21 or more of 29 core conditions recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics; but by 2009, all 50 states and the District of Columbia required screening for 21 or more of these treatable disorders.[37]

According to a presentation at the 2005 annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, individual, state-based March of Dimes chapters work with governors, state legislators, health departments, health professionals, and parents to improve state newborn screening programs and to make comprehensive newborn screening programs available to every newborn throughout the country.[36]

In 2003, the March of Dimes began releasing an annual, state-by-state report card on each state’s adoption of expanded newborn screening recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics. March of Dimes president Jennifer L. Howse, Ph.D. has stated that this program is intended to inform parents of the tests available in their state, enabling those with affected babies to pursue early treatment.[35]

March of Dimes states on its website that it supports mandated newborn screening of all babies in all states in the U.S. for at least 30 life-threatening conditions for which effective treatment and reliable testing is available to prevent catastrophic consequences to the child.[33][34]

Newborn screening

Awareness about National Medical Association, the original goals of the campaign were to raise awareness of the problem from 35 percent to at least 60 percent and to decrease the rate of premature births by at least 15 percent (from 11.9 percent to 10.1 percent).[30] In 2008, the Prematurity Campaign was extended by the Board of Trustees until 2020, and global targets were set for prematurity prevention.[31] In 2008, the March of Dimes started its annual Premature Birth Report Card, which grades the nation and each individual state on preterm birth rates.[32]

Prematurity campaign

The March of Dimes has campaigned for public education on Grain Foods Foundation, an industry group, in public education efforts.[28][29]

Folic acid

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is categorized as a group of birth defects ranging from mental retardation to various growth and behavioral problems.[20] The March of Dimes has provided grant funding for FAS research,[21][22] and they supported the National Council on Alcoholism in its push for legislation to bring public attention to the dangers of alcohol use by pregnant women. This led to a 1989 law mandating a warning label about the risk of birth defects that alcoholic beverages still carry today.[23][24]

Fetal alcohol syndrome

In 1976, the March of Dimes published a report titled Toward Improving the Outcome of Pregnancy (TIOP), and in 1993 they published Toward Improving the Outcome of Pregnancy: The 90s and Beyond (TIOP II).[13] TIOP "stratified maternal and neonatal care into 3 levels of complexity and recommended referral of high-risk patients to centers with the personnel and resources needed for their degree of risk and severity of illness."[13] TIOP was published when "resources for the most complex care were relatively scarce and concentrated in academic medical centers."[13] TIOP II updated care complexity designations from levels I, II and III to basic, specialty and subspecialty, and the criteria were expanded.[13] In 2001, the March of Dimes introduced a family support program for those with babies in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).[14] The program seeks to educate NICU staff to communicate effectively with patients' families.[15][16] The March of Dimes hosted the Symposium on Quality Improvement to Prevent Prematurity in October 2009.[17][18][19] In December 2010, the March of Dimes released TIOP III, subtitled Enhancing Perinatal Health Through Quality, Safety, and Performance Initiatives.

Maternal and neonatal care

[12] credited the "remarkable success of the immunization program to eliminate rubella is due to joint efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, various state and local health departments, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the March of Dimes".Birth Defects Research Part A In 2006, a statement published in [11]


Initiatives after polio

Following widespread use of the Polio vaccine, the organization was faced with disbanding or steering its resources toward a new mission. Basil O’Connor, then the organization's president, directed his staff to identify strengths and weaknesses and reformulate its mission.[5] The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP) shortened its name to the National Foundation (NF) in 1958 and launched its "Expanded Program" against birth defects, arthritis, and virus diseases, seeking to become a "flexible force" in the field of public health. In the mid-1960s, the organization focused its efforts on prevention of birth defects and infant mortality, which became its mission.[7][8] At this time, the cause of birth defects was unknown; only the effects were visible. In 1976, the organization changed its name to the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation.[5] Reducing the toll of premature birth was added as a mission objective in 2005.

Change of mission

The group was founded by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 3, 1938, as a response to U.S. epidemics of polio, a condition that can leave people with permanent physical disabilities. Roosevelt was himself diagnosed with polio in 1921, and it left him unable to move his legs. The foundation was an alliance between scientists and volunteers, with volunteers raising money to support research and education efforts.[5] Basil O'Connor, an attorney and close associate of Roosevelt, helped establish the foundation. O'Connor became its president in 1938, a position he held for more than three decades. His first task was to create a network of local chapters that could raise money and deliver aid; more than 3,100 county chapters were established during his tenure.[5] From 1938 through the approval of the Salk vaccine in 1955, the foundation spent $233 million on polio patient care, which led to more than 80 percent of U.S. polio patients' receiving significant foundation aid.[6]

Anti-polio efforts


[5]. The name "March of Dimes"—coined in the late 1930s by vaudeville star National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis The organization began as the


The March of Dimes is a not-for-profit organization with 501(c)(3) tax-exempt status. The mission of the March of Dimes is to improve the health of babies by preventing birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality.[2] The foundation is headquartered in White Plains, NY and has 51 chapters across the U.S., including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. The March of Dimes provides mothers, pregnant women and women of childbearing age with educational resources on baby health, pregnancy, preconception and new motherhood, as well as supplying information and support to families affected by prematurity, birth defects, or other infant health problems.[3]



  • Organization 1
    • Name 1.1
  • History 2
    • Anti-polio efforts 2.1
    • Change of mission 2.2
  • Initiatives after polio 3
    • Rubella 3.1
    • Maternal and neonatal care 3.2
      • Fetal alcohol syndrome 3.2.1
      • Folic acid 3.2.2
      • Prematurity campaign 3.2.3
    • Newborn screening 3.3
    • SCHIP reauthorization 3.4
    • Global Report on Birth Defects 3.5
    • White paper on prematurity 3.6
    • March for Babies 3.7
    • Sounds of Pertussis 3.8
    • Healthy Babies are Worth the Wait 3.9
    • Perinatal Data Center 3.10
  • Legislation supported 4
  • Notable staff 5
  • Controversy 6
  • Criticism 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

. It has since taken up promoting general health for pregnant women and babies. polio in 1938 to combat Franklin D. Roosevelt It was founded by then-President [1]

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