World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Minority languages of Croatia

Article Id: WHEBN0047019957
Reproduction Date:

Title: Minority languages of Croatia  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Categories for discussion/Log/2015 August 6, Languages of Croatia, Minority languages of Montenegro, Italian language in Croatia, Official minority languages of Sweden
Collection: Languages of Croatia
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Minority languages of Croatia

Languages of Croatia
Map of municipalities with official minority languages
Minority languages

Constitution of Croatia in its preamble defines Croatia as nation state of ethnic Croats, country of traditionally present communities that constitution recognize as national minorities and country of all its citizens. National minorities explicitly enumerated and recognized in Constitution are Serbs, Czechs, Slovaks, Italians, Hungarians, Jews , Germans, Austrians, Ukrainians, Rusyns, Bosniaks, Slovenes, Montenegrins, Macedonians, Russians, Bulgarians, Poles, Romani, Romanians, Turks, Vlachs and Albanians. Article 12 of the constitution states that official language in Croatia is Croatian language, but also states that in some local governments another language and Cyrillic or some other script can be introduced in official use.

The official use of minority languages is defined by relevant national legislation and international conventions and agreements which Croatia signed. The most important national laws are Constitutional Act on the Rights of National Minorities, Law on Use of Languages and Scripts of National Minorities and The Law on Education in language and script of national minorities. Relevant international agreements are European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Certain rights were achieved through bilateral agreements and international agreements such as Treaty of Rapallo and Erdut Agreement.

The required 33.3% of minority population in cetrain local government unit for obligatory introduction of official use of minority languages is considered high taking into account that The Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities of Council of Europe consider threshold from 10% to 20% reasonable.[1] Croatia do not always show favorable views on issue of minority rights but Croatian European Union accession process positively influenced public usage of minority languages.[2]

Contents

  • Affected languages 1
    • Serbian 1.1
      • Controversies 1.1.1
    • Italian 1.2
    • Hungarian 1.3
    • Czech 1.4
    • Slovak 1.5
    • Rusyn 1.6
    • German 1.7
    • Yiddish and Hebrew 1.8
    • Ukrainian 1.9
    • Romani 1.10
    • Other languages 1.11
  • Municipalities with minority languages in official use 2
  • History 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Affected languages

Serbian

bi-lingual plate in front of the school in Trpinja

Education in Serbian language is primarily offered in the area of former Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia based on Erdut Agreement. With those school since 2005 there is also Kantakuzina Katarina Branković Serbian Orthodox Secondary School in Zagreb.

Serb National Council publish weekly magazine Novosti since December 1999. There are also monthly magazines Identitet, published by Serb Democratic Forum, Izvor, published by Joint Council of Municipalities, youth magazine Bijela Pčela and culture magazine Prosvjeta, both published by Prosvjeta and Forum buplished by Serb National Council from Vukovar. There are also three local radio stations in Serbian language in eastern Slavonia such as Radio Borovo.

Controversies

In the first years after introduction of new Constitutional Act on the Rights of National Minorities some local governments resisted implementation of its legal obligations. In 2005 Ombudsman report, municipalities of Vojnić, Krnjak, Gvozd, Donji Kukuruzari, Dvor and Korenica were mentioned as those that do not allow the official use of the Serbian language, although the national minority in these places meets the threshold provided for in the Constitutional Act.[3] The report pointed out that Serbian minority in Vukovar can not use Serbian language although minority constituted less than one percent less population than it was prescribed by law.[3] After 2011 Croatian census Serbs of Vukovar meet the required proportion of population for co-official introduction of Serbian language but it lead to Anti-Cyrillic protests in Croatia. In April 2015 United Nations Human Rights Committee urged Croatia to ensure the right of minorities to use their language and alphabet.[4] Committee report stated that particularly concerns the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the town of Vukovar and municipalities concerned.[4]

Italian

Italian minority has realized much greater rights on bilingualism than other minority communities in Croatia.[3] La Voce del Popolo is an Italian language daily newspaper published by EDIT (EDizioni ITaliane) in the city of Rijeka.

Hungarian

In 2004 Hungarian minority asked for introduction of Hungarian language in town of Beli Manastir as an official language, referring to the rights acquired prior to 1991.[3] Hungarian minority at that time constituted 8,5% of town population.[3]

Czech

6,287 declared Czechs live in Bjelovar-Bilogora County.[5] 70% of them stated that their native language is Czech.[5] Ambassador of Czech Republic in Croatia stated that intention to limit usage of Serbian Cyrillic would negatively affect Czechs and other minorities in Croatia.[6]

Slovak

Union of Slovaks in cooperation with the Slovak Cultural Center in Našice publish magazine Prameň in Slovak language.[7]

Rusyn

German

Yiddish and Hebrew

A memorial plaque in Hebrew and Croatian at place of Zagreb Synagogue, unveiled in 1986

Organisation Zagreb Yiddish Circle is club that organizes courses in Yiddish language, lectures on Jewish history, linguistics and culture, movie nights, and hosts a Yiddish book club.[8]

Ukrainian

Ukrainian language classes are four schools in Lipovljani, Petrovci, Kaniža and Šumeće, attended by about 50 students.[9]

Romani

Croatian Parliament formally recognised Romani Language Day on May 25, 2012.[10] Veljko Kajtazi, Romani community MP, stated that he will advocate to have the Roma language included on the list of minority languages in Croatia during his term in office.[10]

Other languages

Municipalities with minority languages in official use[11]

Municipality Name in minority language Language Affected settlements Introduced based on Population (2011) Percentage of
affected minority (2011)
County
Končanica Končenice Czech All settlements Constitutional Act 2,360 47,03% Bjelovar-Bilogora
Daruvar Daruvar Czech Ljudevit Selo, Daruvar, Donji Daruvar, Gornji Daruvar and Doljani Town Statute 11,633 21.36% Bjelovar-Bilogora
Kneževi Vinogradi Herczegszöllös Hungarian Kneževi Vinogradi, Karanac, Zmajevac, Suza, Kamenac, Kotlina[12] Constitutional Act 4,614 38,66% Osijek-Baranja
Bilje Bellye Hungarian All settlements Municipality Statute 5,642 29.62% Osijek-Baranja
Ernestinovo Ernestinovo Hungarian Laslovo Municipality Statute 2.225 (2001) 22% (2001) Osijek-Baranja
Petlovac Baranyaszentistván Hungarian Novi Bezdan Municipality Statute 2,405 13.72% Osijek-Baranja
Tompojevci Tompojevci Hungarian Čakovci Municipality Statute 1,561 9.01% Vukovar-Srijem
Tordinci Tardhoz Hungarian Korođ Municipality Statute 2,251 (2001) 18% (2001) Vukovar-Srijem
Punitovci Punitovci Slovak All settlements Constitutional Act 1.850 (2001) 36,94% Osijek-Baranja
Našice Slovak Jelisavac Town Statute 16,224 5.57% (2001) Osijek-Baranja
Vrbovsko Врбовско Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 5,076 35,22% Primorje-Gorski Kotar
Vukovar Вуковар Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 27,683 34,87% Vukovar-Srijem
Biskupija Бискупија Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 1,699 (2001) 85,46% Šibenik-Knin
Borovo Борово Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 5,056 89,73% Vukovar-Srijem
Civljane Цивљане Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 239 78,66% Šibenik-Knin
Donji Kukuruzari Доњи Кукурузари Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 1,634 34,82% Sisak-Moslavina
Dvor Двор Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 6,233 71,90% Sisak-Moslavina
Erdut Ердут Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 7,308 54,56% Osijek-Baranja
Ervenik Ервеник Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 1 105 97,19% Šibenik-Knin
Gračac Грачац Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 4,690 45,16% Zadar
Gvozd Гвозд or Вргинмост Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 2,970 66,53% Sisak-Moslavina
Jagodnjak Јагодњак Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 2,040 65,89% Osijek-Baranja
Kistanje Кистање Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 3,481 62,22% Šibenik-Knin
Krnjak Крњак Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 1,985 68,61% Karlovac
Markušica Маркушица Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 2.576 90,10% Vukovar-Srijem
Negoslavci Негославци Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 1.463 96,86% Vukovar-Srijem
Plaški Плашки Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 2,292 (2001) 45,55% Karlovac
Šodolovci Шодоловци Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 1,653 82,58% Osijek-Baranja
Trpinja Трпиња Serbian Village Ćelije excluded in municipality Statute[13] Constitutional Act 5,572 89,75% Vukovar-Srijem
Udbina Удбина Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 1,874 51,12% Lika-Senj
Vojnić Војнић Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 4,764 44,71% Karlovac
Vrhovine Врховине Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 1,381 80,23% Lika-Senj
Donji Lapac Доњи Лапац Serbian All settlements Constitutional Act 2,113 80,64% Lika-Senj
Kneževi Vinogradi Кнежеви Виногради Serbian Kneževi Vinogradi and Karanac[12] Municipality Statute 4,614 18.43% Osijek-Baranja
Nijemci Нијемци Serbian Banovci and Vinkovački Banovci Municipality Statute 4,705 10,95% Vukovar-Srijem
Grožnjan Grisignana Italian All settlements Constitutional Act 785 (2001) 39,40% Istria
Brtonigla Verteneglio Italian All settlements Constitutional Act (2001) 1,873 (2001) 37.37% (2001) Istria
Buje Buie Italian All settlements Town Statute 5,127 Istria
Cres Cherso Italian All settlements Town Statute 2,959 (2001) Primorje-Gorski Kotar
Novigrad Cittanova Italian All settlements Town Statute 4,345 10.20% Istria
Poreč Parenzo Italian All settlements Town Statute 16,696 3.2% Istria
Pula Pola Italian All settlements City Statute 57,460 4.43% Istria
Rijeka Fiume Italian All settlements City Statute 128,624 1.90%% Primorje-Gorski Kotar
Rovinj Rovigno Italian All settlements Town Statute 14,294 11,5% (2001) Istria
Umag Umago Italian All settlements Town Statute 13,467 (2001) 18.3% (2001) Istria
Vodnjan Dignano Italian All settlements Town Statute 6,119 16.62% Istria
Bale Valle d'Istria Italian All settlements Municipality Statute 1,127 36,61% (1991) Istria
Fažana Fasana Italian All settlements Municipality Statute 3.635 4,82% (1991) Istria
Funtana Fontane Italian All settlements Municipality Statute 831 (2001) 3,12% (1991) Istria
Kaštelir-Labinci Castellier-Santa Domenica Italian All settlements Municipality Statute 1,334 (2001) Istria
Ližnjan Lisignano Italian Šišan Municipality Statute 3.965 Istria
Motovun Montona Italian All settlements Municipality Statute 983 (2001) 9,87% (2001) Istria
Oprtalj Portole Italian All settlements Municipality Statute 850 Istria
Tar-Vabriga Torre-Abrega Italian All settlements Municipality Statute 1,506 (2001) Istria
Višnjan Visignano Italian Višnjan, Markovac, Deklevi, Benčani, Štuti, Bucalovići, Legovići, Strpačići, Barat and Farini Municipality Statute 2,187 (2001) 9.1% (2001) Istria
Vrsar Orsera Italian All settlements Municipality Statute 2,703 (2001) 5,66% (1991) Istria
Bogdanovci Богдановци Pannonian Rusyn Petrovci Municipality Statute 1,960 22.65% Vukovar-Srijem
Tompojevci Томпојевци Pannonian Rusyn Mikluševci Municipality Statute 1,561 17.38% Vukovar-Srijem

History

European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages became a legally binding for Croatia in 1997.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Minorities in Croatia Report, page 24" (PDF).  
  2. ^ "Language Policy in Istria, Croatia–Legislation Regarding Minority Language Use, page 61" (PDF). Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, European and Regional Studies, 3 (2013) 47-64. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "The Position of National Minorities in the Republic of Croatia–Legislation and Practice, page 18" (PDF). ombudsman.hr. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "UN calls on Croatia to ensure use of Serbian Cyrillic".  
  5. ^ a b "DAN MATERINJEG JEZIKA".  
  6. ^ "Košatka: Reći 'ne može' ćirilici znači biti i protiv Čeha".  
  7. ^ "Prameň-KULTÚRNO-SPOLOČENSKÝ ČASOPIS SLOVÁKOV V CHORVÁTSKU". Union of Slovaks. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  8. ^ "zagreber yidish-krayz (Zagreb Yiddish Circle)-About". Zagreb Yiddish Circle. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  9. ^ "Ukrajinci u Republici Hrvatskoj". Embassy of Ukraine in Zagreb. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  10. ^ a b "World Roma Language Day marked in Croatian Parliament".  
  11. ^ "PETO IZVJEŠĆE REPUBLIKE HRVATSKE O PRIMJENI EUROPSKE POVELJE O REGIONALNIM ILI MANJINSKIM JEZICIMA, page 36" (PDF). Retrieved 23 June 2015. 
  12. ^ a b "Statut Općine Kneževi Vinogradi , article 15" (PDF). Retrieved 7 August 2015. 
  13. ^ "Statut Općine Trpinja" (PDF). Retrieved 23 June 2015. 
  14. ^ "Europe and Croatia are living and protecting multilingualism".  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.