World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0014785028
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pachacútec  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Lamas, Peru, Inca army, Chanka people, Education in Peru
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Sapa Inca (9th)
Guaman Poma
Reign 1438–1471/1472
Full name Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui
Quechua Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki
Predecessor Viracocha
Successor Túpac Inca Yupanqui
Consort Mama Anawarkhi or Coya Anahurque
Dynasty Hanan
Father Viracocha

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui or Pachacutec (in hispanicized spellings) or Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki (Quechua) was the ninth Sapa Inca (1438–1471/1472) of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the empire Tawantinsuyu or the Inca Empire. Most archaeologists now believe that the famous Inca site of Machu Picchu was built as an estate for Pachacuti.[1]

In Quechua Pachakutiq means "he who shakes the earth",[2] and Yupanki means "with honor". During his reign, Cusco grew from a hamlet into an empire that could compete with, and eventually overtake, the Chimú. He began an era of conquest that, within three generations, expanded the Inca dominion from the valley of Cusco to nearly the whole of western South America.

He was the ninth ruler of the Inca state who, from ruling a simple chiefdom came to rule a great empire, the Tawantinsuyu. Although he had not been designated as successor by his father Viracocha Inca, he led a military defense against the warlike army of Chanka while his father and his brother Urco Inca fled the manor. The victory over the Chankas made Inca Viracocha recognize him as his successor around 1438.

As part of his vision of a statesman and warrior chieftain he conquered many ethnic groups and states, highlighting his conquest of the Collao that enhanced the prestige of the Inca Pachacutec. Due to the remarkable expansion of their domains he was considered an exceptional leader, enlivening glorious epic stories and hymns in tribute to his achievements. Numerous kurakas do not hesitate to recognize his skills and identify him as "son of the Sun". While still alive, his son and successor Tupac Yupanqui defeated Chimu and continued the expansion of Tawantinsuyo. Besides being a conquering warrior and emperor, various chronicles say he was also a great administrator, planner, philosopher, observer of human psychology and charismatic general.


Pachacuti, son of Inca Viracocha, was the fourth of the Hanan dynasty. His wife's name is given as Mama Anawarkhi or Coya Anahurque. He had two sons, Amaru Yupanqui and Tupac Inca Yupanqui. Amaru, the older son, was originally chosen to be co-regent and eventual successor. Pachacuti later chose Tupac Inca because Amaru was not a warrior. He was also the first one to retire.[3]


Pachacuti's given name was Cusi Yupanqui and he was not supposed to succeed his father Inca Viracocha who had appointed his brother Urco as crown prince. However in the midst of an invasion of Cuzco by the Chancas, the Incas' traditional tribal archenemies, Pachacuti had a real opportunity to demonstrate his talent. While his father and brother fled the scene, Pachacuti rallied the army and prepared for a desperate defense of his homeland. In the resulting battle, the Chankas were defeated so severely that legend tells even the stones rose up to fight on Pachacuti's side. Thus "The Earth Shaker" won the support of his people and the recognition of his father as crown prince and joint ruler.

Pachacuti rebuilt much of Cusco, designing it to serve the needs of an imperial city and as a representation of the empire. Each suyu had a sector of the city, centering on the road leading to that province; nobles and immigrants lived in the sector corresponding to their origin. Each sector was further divided into areas for the hanan (upper) and hurin (lower) moieties. The Inca and his family lived in the center, the more prestigious area. Many of the most renowned monuments around Cuzco, such as the great sun temple Qurikancha and the "fortress" of Saksaywaman were constructed during Pachacuti's reign.

Despite his political and military talents, Pachacuti did not improve the system of succession. His son became the next Inca without any known dispute after Pachacuti died in 1471 due to a terminal illness, but in future generations, the next Inca had to gain control of the empire by winning enough support from the apos, priesthood, and military to win a civil war or intimidate anyone else from trying to wrest control of the empire. Pachacuti is also credited with having displaced hundreds of thousands in massive programs of relocation and resettling them to colonize the most remote edges of his empire. These forced colonists were called mitimaes and represented the lowest place in the Incan social hierarchy. The Incan imperial government was highly authoritative and repressive.

Pachacuti was a poet and the author of the


Pachacuti is considered a national hero in modern Peru. During the 2000 presidential elections, the mestizo Indian population gave candidate Alejandro Toledo the nickname Pachac.

In Popular Culture

In 2009 the BBC television series Horrible Histories featured a comic song entitled Do the Pachacuti showing some of the violent techniques used by Pachacuti. Pachacuti is featured as the leader of the Inca in the video game Civilization V. He was also portrayed in the American documentary series Mankind The Story of All of Us.


Preceded by
Viracocha Inca
Sapa Inca
c. 1471 CE
Succeeded by
Topa Inca Yupanqui

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.