World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Pakistani general election, 1993

Article Id: WHEBN0020396276
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pakistani general election, 1993  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Pakistani general election, 1997, Naveed Qamar, Operation Clean-up, Pakistani general election, 2002, Libya–Pakistan relations
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Pakistani general election, 1993

Pakistan general election, 1993

October 6, 1993 (1993-10-06)

All 207 members are elected for lower house legislator, Pakistan National Assembly, of Pakistan Parliament
Turnout 40.3%
  First party Second party
Leader Benazir Bhutto Nawaz Sharif
Party PPP PML (N)
Leader since 1982 1993
Leader's seat Lark-anna Lahore
Last election 44, 36.8% 111, 37.4%
Seats before 44 111
Seats won 89 73
Seat change Increase 45 Decrease 38
Popular vote 7,578,635 7,980,229
Percentage 37.9% 39.9%
Swing Decrease-0.6% Increase2.4%

Prime minister before election

Nawaz Sharif

Prime Minister

Benazir Bhutto

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

General elections were held in Pakistan on 6 October 1993. The election took place after both the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and President Ghulam Ishaq Khan resigned to resolve a power struggle between them.[1] Although the Pakistan Muslim League (N) won the largest number of votes, the Pakistan Peoples Party won the most seats. After winning the support of minor parties and independents the leader of the PPP, Benazir Bhutto, was elected Prime Minister by the National Assembly. Voter turnout was 40.3%.[2]


The Pakistan Muslim League (N) (PML-N) won the 1990 election and the party's leader, Nawaz Sharif, became Prime Minister. In early 1993 he attempted to strip the President of the power to dismiss the Prime Minister, National Assembly and regional assemblies.[3] However in April 1993 President Khan dismissed Sharif for corruption and called elections for the 14 July after dissolving the National Assembly.[4] Sharif immediately appealed to the Supreme Court, which in May ruled by 10 to 1 that Khan had exceeded his powers and therefore restored Sharif as Prime Minister.[5]

Khan and Sharif then began to battle for control of Pakistan for the next two months. They both attempted to secure control over the regional assemblies and in particular, Punjab. In Punjab this saw a staged kidnapping and the moving of 130 members of the Punjab Assembly to the capital to ensure they stayed loyal to Sharif. Meanwhile the leader of the main opposition party Benazir Bhutto threatened to lead a march on Islamabad unless new elections were called.[3]

Finally on the 18 July, under pressure from the army to resolve the power struggle, Sharif and Khan resigned as Prime Minister and President respectively. Elections for the National Assembly were called for the 6 October with elections for the regional assemblies set to follow shortly afterwards.[3][6]


Until the election the chairman of the Senate, Wasim Sajjad became interim president and former World Bank executive Moeenuddin Ahmad Qureshi became caretaker prime minister.[6] The interim government cut spending, introduced a tax on rich landowners and cracked down on corruption and drug traffickers.[7] They were praised for stabilising the country while the campaign took place but their policies were criticised by the two main political leaders, Sharif and Bhutto.[1][7]

In total 1,485 candidates stood in the election but the main fight was between the PML-N of Nawaz Sharif and the PPP of Benazir Bhutto.[1] Their policies were very similar but saw a clash of personalities with both parties making many promises but not explaining how they were going to pay for them.[8] Sharif stood on his record of privatisations and development projects and pledged to restore his taxi giveaway program.[8][9] Bhutto promised price supports for agriculture, pledged a partnership between government and business and campaigned strongly for the female vote.[9]

Opinion polls showed a very close election between the two main parties but there was a lot of cynicism among voters.[8] The army was credited with making sure that the election was fair and deployed 150,000 troops in polling stations to ensure this.[10]


The PPP won the most seats in the election at 86 but failed to gain a majority with the PML-N second with 73 seats. This was also the first election in Pakistan in which the party that won the popular vote, the PML-N, failed to win the most seats. The PPP performed strongly in Bhutto's native Sindh and rural Punjab, while the PML-N was strongest in industrial Punjab and the largest cities such as Karachi, Lahore and Rawalpindi.[9] Islamic fundamentalist candidates did poorly in an election that was marked by a low turnout.[1] Turnout in Pakistan's largest city, Karachi, was particularly low at 20% after one party MQM (A) boycotted the election.[10] International observers from 40 countries reported no serious irregularities in an election which was seen as the most free and fair since 1970.[7]

Parties Votes % Seats +/-
Pakistan Muslim League (N) 7,980,229 39.9 73 New
Pakistan Peoples Party 7,578,635 37.9 89 New
Pakistan Muslim League (J) 781,652 3.9 6 New
Pakistan Islamic Front 645,278 3.2 3 New
Islamic Jamhoori Mahaz 480,099 2.4 4 New
Awami National Party 335,094 1.7 3 -3
Mutehda Deeni Mahaz 216,937 1.1 2 New
Pakhtun-khwa Milli Awami Party 97,541 0.5 3 +2
National Democratic Alliance 64,713 0.3 1 New
Jamhoori Wattan Party 54,607 0.3 2 0
Pakhtun-khwa Qaumi Party 54,144 0.3 1 New
National Peoples Party (Khar) 48,721 0.2 1 New
Balochistan National Movement (Hayee) 47,648 0.2 1 New
Balochistan National Movement (Mengal) 45,228 0.2 1 New
Other parties 107,979 0.5 0
Independents 1,482,033 7.4 16 -6
Invalid/blank votes 272,769
Total 20,293,307 100 207 0
Source: Nohlen et al.


Both main parties lobbied the smaller parties and independents for their support in the National Assembly. The PPP was successful and on the 20 October 1993 Benazir Bhutto was elected Prime Minister receiving 121 votes to 72 for Nawaz Sharif.[11] Her position was strengthened by a strong performance by the PPP in the regional elections on the 9 October, in which the PPP, with the help of its Alliance partners, managed to retake Punjab for the first time since 1971.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e "ELECTIONS HELD IN 1993".  
  2. ^ Nohlen, D, Grotz, F & Hartmann, C (2001) Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume I, p678 ISBN 0-19-924958-X
  3. ^ a b c Gargan, Edward A. (19 July 1993). "Pakistan Government Collapses; Elections Are Called".  
  4. ^ "Pakistan Seeks 2-Party Cabinet".  
  5. ^ "The Verdict on Two Courts; Judicial Courage in Pakistan".  
  6. ^ a b "Top Two Political Powers Resign In Pakistan – Benazir Bhutto Sees Opportunity To Regain Status".  
  7. ^ a b c Gargan, Edward A. (8 October 1993). "Bhutto Wins Plurality and Faces a New Struggle".  
  8. ^ a b c Gargan, Edward A. (6 October 1993). "After a Year of Tumult, Pakistanis Will Vote".  
  9. ^ a b c "Second Time Lucky?".  
  10. ^ a b Gargan, Edward A. (7 October 1993). "Ex-Leaders Await Pakistan Vote Tally".  
  11. ^ Moore, Molly (20 October 1993). "Bhutto Elected Pakistan's Premier, Says She Hopes to End Isolation".  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.