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Southward equinox

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Southward equinox

UT date and time of
equinoxes and solstices on Earth[1]
event Northward
equinox
Northern
solstice
Southward
equinox
Southern
solstice
month March June September December
year
day time day time day time day time
2010 20 17:32 21 11:28 23 03:09 21 23:38
2011 20 23:21 21 17:16 23 09:04 22 05:30
2012 20 05:14 20 23:09 22 14:49 21 11:12
2013 20 11:02 21 05:04 22 20:44 21 17:11
2014 20 16:57 21 10:51 23 02:29 21 23:03
2015 20 22:45 21 16:38 23 08:20 22 04:48
2016 20 04:30 20 22:34 22 14:21 21 10:44
2017 20 10:28 21 04:24 22 20:02 21 16:28
2018 20 16:15 21 10:07 23 01:54 21 22:23
2019 20 21:58 21 15:54 23 07:50 22 04:19
2020 20 03:50 20 21:44 22 13:31 21 10:02

The Southward equinox (or September equinox) is the moment when the sun appears to cross the celestial equator, heading southward. Due to differences between the calendar year and the tropical year, the Southward equinox can occur at any time from the 22nd to the 24th day of September. At the equinox, the sun rises directly in the east and sets directly in the west. Before the Southward equinox, the sun rises and sets more and more to the north, and afterwards, it rises and sets more and more to the south.

In the Northern Hemisphere the Southward equinox is known as the autumnal equinox. In the Southern Hemisphere it is known as the vernal or spring equinox.

Occurrences

The Southward equinox is one point in time commonly used to determine the length of the tropical year.

Date and time of the Southward equinox[2] that occurred from the year 2000 to 2010 are listed as follows:

  • 2000-09-22 17:28
  • 2001-09-22 23:04
  • 2002-09-23 04:55
  • 2003-09-23 10:47
  • 2004-09-22 16:30
  • 2005-09-22 22:23
  • 2006-09-23 04:03
  • 2007-09-23 09:51
  • 2008-09-22 15:44
  • 2009-09-22 21:18
  • 2010-09-23 03:09

(See sidebox for the current decade)

Constellation

The point where the Sun crosses the celestial equator southwards is called the first point of Libra. However, due to the precession of the equinoxes, this point is no longer in the constellation Libra, but rather in Virgo.

The Southward equinox passed from Libra into Virgo in year −729, will pass into Leo in year 2439.

Apparent movement of the Sun in relation to the horizon

At the equinox, the Sun rises directly in the east and sets directly in the west. However, because of refraction it will usually appear slightly above the horizon at the moment when its "true" middle is rising or setting. For viewers at the north or south poles, it moves virtually horizontally on or above the horizon, not obviously rising or setting apart from the movement in "declination" (and hence altitude) of a little under a half (0.39) degree per day.

For observers in either hemisphere not at the poles, the further one goes in time away from the September equinox in the 3 months before that equinox, the more to the north the Sun has been rising and setting, and for the 3 months afterwards it rises and sets more and more to the south.

Human culture

Calendars

It was the first day of the French Republican Calendar.

Commemorations

Near East
  • The Southward equinox marks the first day of Mehr or Libra in the Iranian calendar. It is one of the Iranian festivals called Jashne Mihragan, or the festival of sharing or love in Zoroastrianism.
East Asia
  • In Korea, Chuseok is a major harvest festival and a three-day holiday celebrated around the Autumn Equinox.
  • The Mid-Autumn Festival is celebrated on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month, often near the autumnal equinox day, and is an official holiday in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and in many countries with a significant Chinese minority. As the lunar calendar is not synchronous with the Gregorian calendar, this date could be anywhere from mid-September to early October.
  • The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms (节气, literally "climatic segments"), and the autumnal equinox (Qiūfēn, Chinese and Japanese: 秋分; Korean: 추분; Vietnamese: Thu phân) marks the middle of the autumn season. In this context, the Chinese character 分 means "(equal) division" (within a season).
  • In Japan there is an Autumnal Equinox Day (秋分の日 Shūbun no hi).
Europe
  • The Roman celebration of the Fall Equinox was dedicated to Pomona, goddess of fruits and growing things.[3]
  • The traditional harvest festival in the United Kingdom was celebrated on the Sunday of the full moon closest to the September equinox.
  • The Southward equinox was "New Year's Day" in the French Republican Calendar, which was in use from 1793 to 1805. The French First Republic was proclaimed and the French monarchy was abolished on September 21, 1792, making the following day (the equinox day that year) the first day of the "Republican Era" in France. The start of every year was to be determined by astronomical calculations following the real Sun and not the mean Sun.
Neopaganism

References

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