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Turkish National Movement


Turkish National Movement

Members of the movement during the Sivas Congress, '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''stem Bilinski

The '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''ss="scribunto-error" id="mw-scribunto-error-0&quointeger the first argument []-->) encompasses the political and military ivities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I. In the aftermath, Turkish revolutionaries ebelled against the by the under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros, the Empire's participation in World War I; they also rebelled against the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920, similarly signed by the Ottoman government, and partitioned portions of Anatolia itself.

The establishment of an alliance of Turkish revolutionaries during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire resulted in the declaration of the Republic of Turkey and abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate. The movement declared that the only source of governance for the Turkish people would be the democratic Grand National Assembly.

The movement was created through a series of agreements and conferences throughout Anatolia and Thrace. The process was aimed to unite independent movements around the country to build a common voice. The whole process is attributed to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as he was the primary spokesperson, public figure, and military leader of the movement.

Amasya Agreement, June 1919

The Amasya Agreement was important in many respects. It was the first call to the national movement against the occupying powers. It consisted of talks about national independence, based on provinces, not race. Even in this declaration we saw the roots of what constitutes the "Turk" as a political term, there was no distinction or reference to race or religion. The message read as follows:

  • The unity of the motherland and national independence are in danger.
  • The Istanbul government is unable to carry out its responsibilities.
  • It is only through the nation's effort and determination that national independence will be won.
  • It is necessary to establish a national committee, free from all external influences and control, that will review the national situation and make known to the world the peoples desires for justice.
  • It has been decided to hold immediately a National Congress in Sivas, the most secure place in Anatolia.
  • Three representatives from each province should be sent immediately to the Sivas Congress.
  • To be prepared for every eventuality, this subject should be kept a national secret.
  • There will be a congress for the Eastern Provinces on July 10. The delegation from the Erzurum Congress will depart to join to the general meeting in Sivas.

This agreement was signed by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Rauf Orbay, [[#REDIRECTA'akuluujjusi

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