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Western Oregon Indian Termination Act

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Western Oregon Indian Termination Act

The Western Oregon Indian Termination Act or Public Law 588, was passed in August 1954 as part of the United States Indian termination policy. It called for termination of federal supervision over the trust and restricted property of numerous Native American bands and small tribes, all located west of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon.[1] The act also called for disposition of federally owned property which had been bought for the administration of Indian affairs, and for termination of federal services which these Indians received under federal recognition.[1] The stipulations in this act were similar to those of most termination acts.

Tribes and bands

The Western Oregon Indian Termination Act was unique because of the number of tribes it affected. In all, 61 tribes in Western Oregon were terminated, more than the total tribes terminated under all other individual acts.[1] However, it appears that authorities named every tribe that had been named in various treaties over the years. A review of the 1890[2] and 1930 censuses shows that several of the named tribes in the termination act reported no members.[3] In addition, the history of the area, with the Coastal Reservation being established by Executive Order and not treaty, then separated into the Siletz and Grande Ronde Reservations, then those two reservations being combined, and yet again separated, makes the situation complicated and difficult to ascertain specific data.[4]

The 1930 census report notes that there were people who reported that they were Indian but did not denote a tribe in almost every state. In addition, it combines groups into language stock and tribes; however, “tribe” may reflect all speakers rather than separate bands and tribes. The total number of Indians affiliated with the language groups were as follows:

The totals in Oregon for 1930 were 1,564. In comparison, the numbers for the 1910 census for these same groups represented a population of 2,304.[3] On June 22, 1956, the final roll of the Confederated Tribes of Siletz contained 929 names.[5] On April 14, 1956, the Federal Register published the final roll of the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde which contained 862 names.[6] The combined total of these two confederations' population was 1,791, though there may well have been scattered native peoples in the coastal region who were not affiliated with these reservations.

Restoration acts

There were five restoration acts that restored all of the bands who had tribe members that had been located on the Grand Ronde or Silez Reservations. Some of these tribes were restored with those acts and later obtained their own federal recognition. The Chinook Indian Nation, made up of 4 bands: the Cathlamet, Clatsop, Wahkiakum (in Washington State) and Lower Columbia Chinook (in Washington State) are seeking separate tribal recognition.

Western Oregon Indians
As Listed on Treaty Tribal entity Language Stock[2] Merger with Other Reservation[2] Date of Reinstatement Date of Land Restoration Details
1. Alsea Alsiya Indians Yakonan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation As of the 1890 census, there were no members of this tribe enumerated who were not in the confines of the Siletz Reservation.[2] Comments in the 1930 US Federal Census state, “The report of the Office of Indian Affairs for 1932 shows 13 Alsea and Yaquina enrolled at the Siletz Reservation of whom 5 are residing there and 8 elsewhere.” It also indicates that the 1910 Census showed 29 Alsea, 7 Siuslaw, and 19 Yaquina living in Oregon.[3]
2. Applegate Creek Applegate Creek Tribe Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation As of the 1890 census, there were no members of this tribe enumerated who were not in the confines of the Siletz Reservation.
3. Calapooya Kalapuya Indians Kalapooian Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] and Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation Various bands of this group were incorporated into either the Grand Ronde or Siletz Communities.
4. Chaftan Chafan Band of the Kalapuya Kalapooian Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation There were no members of this tribe enumerated on the 1890 census.
5. Chempho Muddy Creek Chemapho Band of the Central Kalapuya Kalapooian Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
6. Chetco Chetco Indians Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
7. Chetlessington Chet-less-ing-ton Band of Tututni[8] Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
8. Chinook Chinook Indian Nation Chinookan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation On January 3, 2001 the US Congress endorsed restoring the tribal status of 4 bands of the Chinook Indian Nation: the Cathlamet, Clatsop, Wahkiakum and Lower Columbia Chinook; however, on July 5, 2002 the decision was reversed. An appeal is in process.[9]
9. Clackamas Clackamas Tribe Chinookan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
10. Clatskanie Clatskanie (Tlatskanai) Indians Athapascan Shasta Costa (Shastao-Skoton, Shista-Kkhwusta)Band of Tututni 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation The Clatskanie people merged with the Shasta Costa and in 1910, had only 3 remaining members.[10]
11. Clatsop Clatsop Band of Chinook Indian Nation[9] Chinookan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation On January 3, 2001 the US Congress endorsed restoring the tribal status of 4 bands of the Chinook Indian Nation: the Cathlamet, Clatsop, Wahkiakum (in Washington State)and Lower Columbia Chinook (in Washington State); however, on July 5, 2002 the decision was reversed. An appeal is in process.[9]
12. Clowwewalla Clowwewalla Band of the Chinook Indian Nation Chinookan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
13. Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community various n/a November 22, 1983 November 22, 1983 By federal statute. Public Law No. 98-165, 97 Stat. 1064 [11] Upon restoration 10,678.36 acres of land were placed back into trust by the Bureau of Land management.[12]
14. Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians various n/a November 18, 1977 November 18, 1977 By federal statute. Public Law No. 95-195, 91 Stat. 1415 [13] Records of the Bureau of Land Management confirm that upon restoration 4,250.68 acres of land were re-established in the federal trust.[12]
15. Coos Coos/Kusa peoples Kusan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians October 17, 1984 October 17, 1984 By federal statute. Public Law No. 98-481, 98 Stat. 2250 [14] 130.50 acres were placed into the Bureau of Land Management’s trust upon tribal restoration.[12]
16. Cow Creek Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians Athapascan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community[4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians December 29, 1982 [15] By federal statute. Public Law No. Public Law 97-391 96 Stat. 1960[16]
17. Euchees Euchre (Yukwitche, Yugweechi) Band of Tututni Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
18. Galic Creek Galice Creek Indians Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
19. Grave Grave Creek Umpqua Athapascan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
20. Joshua Joshua or Chemetunne Band of the Tututni[17] Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
21. Karok Karok Tribe Hokan As of the 1930 census, there were no Karok peoples enumerated living outside the State of California.[18]
22. Kathlamet Cathlamet Band of Chinook Indian Nation [9] Chinookan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation On January 3, 2001 the US Congress endorsed restoring the tribal status of 4 bands of the Chinook Indian Nation: the Cathlamet, Clatsop, Wahkiakum (in Washington State) and Lower Columbia Chinook (in Washington State); however, on July 5, 2002 the decision was reversed. An appeal is in process.[9]
23. Kusotony Kusotony Band of the Tututni Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation Kusotony, Co-sutt-hen-ton, Co-ca-to-ny, Co-sate-he-ne all appear as variations of this name.[19] An 1854 memo lists that the group, which had 27 members at that time was part of the “ToToTin” (clearly Tututni) Indians.[20]
24. Kwatami or Sixes Kwatami or Sixes Band of Tututni Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
25. Lakmiut Luckiamute Band of Central Kalapuya Kalapooian Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
26. Long Tom Creek Long Tom Creek Band of the Kalapuya Kalapooian Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
27. Lower Coquille Lower Coquille (Ko-Kwell) of the Tututni Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
Coquille Indian Tribe June 28, 1989 June 28, 1989 By Federal Statute. Public Law 101-42.[21] The Bureau of Land Management placed 6,481.95 acres of land into trust for the tribe upon restoration.[12]
28. Lower Umpqua Lower Umpqua Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians October 17, 1984 October 17, 1984 By federal statute. Public Law No. 98-481, 98 Stat. 2250 [14] 130.50 acres were placed into the Bureau of Land Management’s trust upon tribal restoration.[12]
29. Maddy Maddy or Chemapho Band of the Central Kalapuya[22] Kalapooian Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
30. Mackanotin Mikonotunne Band of the Tututni[23] Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
31. Mary's River Mary’s River Chepenefa Band of Kalapuya Kalapooian Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
32. Multnomah Multnomah Band of the Chinook Indian Nation Chinookan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
33. Munsel Creek Munsel Creek Band unknown The band or sub-tribe was probably located near present Florence, Oregon, which is in Siuslaw country.[24][25]
34. Naltunnetunne Naltunnetunne Band of the Tututni Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
35. Nehalem Nehalem or Tillamook Tribe Salishan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
36. Nestucca Nestucca Salishan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community and Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation The 1890 census indicates that the Nestucca were residing on the Grand Ronde Reservation and the Nostucca were residing on the Siletz Reservation.[2]
37. Northern Molalla Northern Molalla Band of the Plateau Indians Waiilatpuan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] and Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
38. Port Orford Naltunnetunne Band of the Tututni Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation The 1890 census states that the Nahltanadons live in Port Orford; however, in the enumeration portion, the closest tribe listed to this spelling is Nultuatana.[2][26]
39. Pudding Pudding River Ahantchuyuk Band of Kalapuya Kalapooian Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
40. River Tribe Smith River tribe merged with Siletz, but impossible to determine without more quantifiers what "river" refers to.[27]
41. Rogue River Rogue River Band of Tututni Athapascan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] and Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation Various bands of this group were incorporated into either the Grand Ronde or Siletz Communities. Rogue River appears on both the Grand Ronde and Siletz census for 1890.
42. Salmon River Salmon River Band of Salish Salishan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community and Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [4] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation
43. Santiam Santiam Band of Kalapuya Kalapooian Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
44. Scoton Shasta Costa Band of Tututni Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation Chasta-Scotons, Chasta Costas, Shis-ta-koos- tee, Shasta Coazta, Shasta Costa, Chaste Costa, Shasta Costa, ChasteCosta and Shista Kwusta all appear as variations of this name.[19]
45. Shasta Shasta (Chasta) Band of the Tututni Athapascan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
46. Shasta Costa Shasta Costa Band of Tututni Athapascan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] and Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation Chasta-Scotons, Chasta Costas, Shis-ta-koos- tee, Shasta Coazta, Shasta Costa, Chaste Costa, Shasta Costa, ChasteCosta and Shista Kwusta all appear as variations of this name.[19]
47. Siletz Siletz Band of the Tillamook Tribe Salishan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
48. Siuslaw Siuslaw Indians Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians October 17, 1984 October 17, 1984 By federal statute. Public Law No. 98-481, 98 Stat. 2250 [14] 130.50 acres were placed into the Bureau of Land Management’s trust upon tribal restoration.[12]
49. Skiloot Skillot Band of Chinook Indian Nation Chinookan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
50. Southern Molalla Southern Molalla Band of the Plateau Indians Waiilatpuan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community and Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
51. Takelma Takelma Band of the Tututni Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
52. Tillamook Tillamook Indian Tribe Salishan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community and Confederated Tribes of the Siletz [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation
53. Tolowa Tolowa Indians Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
54. Tualatin Atfalati or Tualatin Band of Kalapuya Kalapooian Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
55. Tututui Tututni Indians Athapascan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community and Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation Various bands of this group were incorporated into either the Grand Ronde or Siletz Communities.
56. Upper Coquille Upper Coquille Band of the Tututni Athapascan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation
Coquille Indian Tribe June 28, 1989 June 28, 1989 By Federal Statute. Public Law 101-42.[21] The Bureau of Land Management placed 6,481.95 acres of land into trust for the tribe upon restoration.[12]
57. Upper Umpqua Upper Umpqua Band Athapascan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] and Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation and/or 1983 as Grand Ronde Confederation
58. Willamette Tumwater Willamette Tumwater Band of the Chinook Indian Nation Chinookan Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
59. Yamhill Yamhill Band of Kalapuya Kalapooian Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation
60. Yaquina Yaquina Tribe Yakonan Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians [7] 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation 1977 as part of the Siletz Confederation By the time the Coast Reservation of 1856 was established, the population of the Yaquina Tribe was so reduced that the entire record of the Yakonan/Alsean language stock comes from the Alsea. The reservation was established in the traditional homeland of the Yaquina and Alsea and encompassed their homelands.[28] Comments in the 1930 US Federal Census state, “The report of the Office of Indian Affairs for 1932 shows 13 Alsea and Yaquina enrolled at the Siletz Reservation of whom 5 are residing there and 8 elsewhere.” It also indicates that the 1910 Census showed 29 Alsea, 7 Siuslaw, and 19 Yaquina living in Oregon.[3]
61. Yoncalla Yoncalla Band of the Kalapuya Kalapooian Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community [4] 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation 1983 as part of the Grand Ronde Confederation

References

  1. ^ a b c Public Law 588, August 13, 1954. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Vol. VI (Washington: Government Printing Office), p. 641 [2]
  2. ^ a b c d e f http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1890a_v10-25.pdf
  3. ^ a b c d >Truesdell, Leon Edgar editor (1937). "The Indian Population of the United States and Alaska, 1930, Volume 2". United States Bureau of the Census. U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved December 20, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/10067/Lewis_Daivd_Gene_phd2009wi.pdf?sequence=1
  5. ^ http://soda.sou.edu/awdata/021029d1.pdf
  6. ^ >Lewis, David Gene (2009). "Termination of the Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon: Politics, Community, Identity". University of Oregon. Retrieved December 21, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj "Siletz Indian Tribe History, Tillamook Oregon, Multnomah County Oregon, Salishan - Part I - Introduction". 
  8. ^ "NAGPRA NOTICES OF INTENT TO REPATRIATE:Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Horner Collection, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR". 
  9. ^ a b c d e "Chinook tribe pushes for recognition, again". OregonLive.com. 
  10. ^ "Clatskanie Indians". Access Genealogy. 
  11. ^ "25 U.S. Code Chapter 14, Subchapter XXX–C - CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF THE GRAND RONDE COMMUNITY OF OREGON". 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Indian Issues: BLM's Program for Issuing Individual Indian Allotments on Public Lands Is No Longer Viable". 
  13. ^ "25 U.S. Code Chapter 14, Subchapter XXX–A - SILETZ INDIAN TRIBE: RESTORATION OF FEDERAL SUPERVISION". 
  14. ^ a b c "25 U.S. Code Chapter 14, Subchapter XXX–D - CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF COOS, LOWER UMPQUA, AND SIUSLAW INDIANS: RESTORATION OF FEDERAL SUPERVISION". 
  15. ^ "Oregon Blue Book: Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians". 
  16. ^ "25 U.S. Code Chapter 14, Subchapter XXX–B - COW CREEK BAND OF UMPQUA TRIBE OF OREGON". 
  17. ^ http://www.ohs.org/education/oregonhistory/historical_records/dspDocument.cfm?doc_ID=428da59f-f49f-c56d-62c88c6e42b73ba9
  18. ^ 1930 Census (1937), pp. 43
  19. ^ a b c Van Laere, M. Susan (2000). "The Grizzly Bear and the Deer: The History of Federal Indian Policy and Its Impact on the Coast Reservation Tribes of Oregon, 1856-1877." (PDF). pp. 60, 215. Retrieved December 20, 2014. 
  20. ^ http://soda.sou.edu/awdata/030903c1.pdf
  21. ^ a b "25 U.S. Code Chapter 14, Subchapter XXX–E - COQUILLE INDIAN TRIBE OF OREGON: RESTORATION OF FEDERAL SUPERVISION". 
  22. ^ http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/kal0665.htm
  23. ^ "National Museum of the American Indian : Search Results". 
  24. ^ >Santoro, Nicholas J. (2009). "Atlas of the Indian Tribes of the Continental United States and the Clash of Cultures". iUniverse. p. 238.  
  25. ^ >Erlandson, Laura Dahlin. "‘ ‘Two Little Girls’ ’" (PDF) (August 1948 ed.). Siuslaw Pioneer. p. 2. Retrieved December 20, 2014. 
  26. ^ Van Laere, M. Susan (2000). "The Grizzly Bear and the Deer: The History of Federal Indian Policy and Its Impact on the Coast Reservation Tribes of Oregon, 1856-1877." (PDF). p. 60. Retrieved December 20, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Siletz Reservation". Access Genealogy. 
  28. ^ Sturtevant, William C ed. (1990). "Handbook of North American Indians: Northwest coast". Smithsonian Institution. p. 370. Retrieved December 20, 2014. 
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