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World Health Organization : Year 2002 ; Assessment Document, A76636: WTO Agreements and Public Health

By World Health Organization

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Book Id: WPLBN0000144196
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.8 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization : Year 2002 ; Assessment Document, A76636: WTO Agreements and Public Health  
Author: World Health Organization
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Organization, W. H. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Year 2002 ; Assessment Document, A76636. Retrieved from http://netlibrary.net/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
FOREWORD BY GRO HARLEM BRUNDTLAND AND MIKE MOORE As the world becomes increasingly integrated, it becomes less and less possible for different policy areas to be handled independently of each other. The linkage between trade and health has been the focus of much debate: real concerns should be dealt with and any misunderstandings should be clarified based on sound evidence and rigorous analysis. We consider this joint study by the WHO and the WTO Secretariat a useful and timely initiative in this regard. It illustrates that there is much common ground between trade and health. Another important message is that health and trade policymakers can benefit from closer cooperation to ensure coherence between their different areas of responsibilities. In both the WHO and the WTO questions of trade and public health feature high on the agenda, and significant advances have been made in the recent past. The endorsement by the international community of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health is a very visible expression of governments' commitment to ensuring that the rules-based trading system is compatible with public health interests.

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 II. THE WTO AGREEMENTS RELEVANT TO HEALTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 A. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 (i) The institution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 (ii) Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 (iii) Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 (iv) Basic function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 (v) Membership and accession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 B. KEY WTO PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 (i) Most-favoured-nation (MFN): treating other WTO Members equally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 (ii) National treatment: Treating foreigners and locals equally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 (iii) The MFN principle and public health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 (iv) Health exceptions in GATT and GATS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 C. TECHNICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 1. The TBT Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 (i) Overall objective, purpose of Agreement, and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 (ii) Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 (iii) Examples as applied to health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 (iv) Use of international health standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 (v) Review of the TBT Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 2. The SPS Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 (i) Rationale for the SPS Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 (ii) SPS directly relevant to health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 (iii) Difference in coverage compared to TBT Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 (iv) Why is it important which Agreement applies? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 (v) Scientific justification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 (vi) Provisional measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 (vii) Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 D. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND TRADE (TRIPS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 (i) Provisions for public health protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 (ii) What are Member governments' obligations with respect to pharmaceutical patents under TRIPS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

 

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