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Plos Biology : Maternal Xnorrin, a Canonical Wnt Signaling Agonist and Tgf-b Antagonist, Controls Early Neuroectoderm Specification in Xenopus, Volume 10

By Stemple, Derek L.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003922332
Format Type: PDF eBook :
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Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Plos Biology : Maternal Xnorrin, a Canonical Wnt Signaling Agonist and Tgf-b Antagonist, Controls Early Neuroectoderm Specification in Xenopus, Volume 10  
Author: Stemple, Derek L.
Volume: Volume 10
Language: English
Subject: Journals, Science, Biology
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, PLoS Biology
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Publisher: Plos

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Stemple, D. L. (n.d.). Plos Biology : Maternal Xnorrin, a Canonical Wnt Signaling Agonist and Tgf-b Antagonist, Controls Early Neuroectoderm Specification in Xenopus, Volume 10. Retrieved from http://netlibrary.net/


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Description : Dorsal–ventral specification in the amphibian embryo is controlled by b-catenin, whose activation in all dorsal cells is dependent on maternal Wnt11. However, it remains unknown whether other maternally secreted factors contribute to bcatenin activation in the dorsal ectoderm. Here, we show that maternal Xenopus Norrin (xNorrin) promotes anterior neural tissue formation in ventralized embryos. Conversely, when xNorrin function is inhibited, early canonical Wnt signaling in the dorsal ectoderm and the early expression of the zygotic neural inducers Chordin, Noggin, and Xnr3 are severely suppressed, causing the loss of anterior structures. In addition, xNorrin potently inhibits BMP- and Nodal/Activin-related functions through direct binding to the ligands. Moreover, a subset of Norrin mutants identified in humans with Norrie disease retain Wnt activation but show defective inhibition of Nodal/Activin-related signaling in mesoderm induction, suggesting that this disinhibition causes Norrie disease. Thus, xNorrin is an unusual molecule that acts on two major signaling pathways, Wnt and TGF-b, in opposite ways and is essential for early neuroectoderm specification.

 

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