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Plos Biology : a Combinatorial Code for Splicing Silencing ; Uagg and Gggg Motifs, Volume 3

By Zamore, Phillip D.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003923962
Format Type: PDF eBook :
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Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Plos Biology : a Combinatorial Code for Splicing Silencing ; Uagg and Gggg Motifs, Volume 3  
Author: Zamore, Phillip D.
Volume: Volume 3
Language: English
Subject: Journals, Science, Biology
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, PLoS Biology
Publication Date:
Publisher: Plos


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Zamore, P. D. (n.d.). Plos Biology : a Combinatorial Code for Splicing Silencing ; Uagg and Gggg Motifs, Volume 3. Retrieved from

Description : Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is widely used to regulate gene expression by tuning the levels of tissue-specific mRNA isoforms. Few regulatory mechanisms are understood at the level of combinatorial control despite numerous sequences, distinct from splice sites, that have been shown to play roles in splicing enhancement or silencing. Here we use molecular approaches to identify a ternary combination of exonic UAGG and 59-splice-site-proximal GGGG motifs that functions cooperatively to silence the brain-region-specific CI cassette exon (exon 19) of the glutamate NMDA R1 receptor (GRIN1) transcript. Disruption of three components of the motif pattern converted the CI cassette into a constitutive exon, while predominant skipping was conferred when the same components were introduced, de novo, into a heterologous constitutive exon. Predominant exon silencing was directed by the motif pattern in the presence of six competing exonic splicing enhancers, and this effect was retained after systematically repositioning the two exonic UAGGs within the CI cassette. In this system, hnRNP A1 was shown to mediate silencing while hnRNP H antagonized silencing. Genome-wide computational analysis combined with RT-PCR testing showed that a class of skipped human and mouse exons can be identified by searches that preserve the sequence and spatial configuration of the UAGG and GGGG motifs. This analysis suggests that the multi-component silencing code may play an important role in the tissuespecific regulation of the CI cassette exon, and that it may serve more generally as a molecular language to allow for intricate adjustments and the coordination of splicing patterns from different genes.


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