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Plos Biology : Phase Coupling of a Circadian Neuropeptide with Rest, Volume 6

By Wu, Ying

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Book Id: WPLBN0003928913
Format Type: PDF eBook :
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Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Plos Biology : Phase Coupling of a Circadian Neuropeptide with Rest, Volume 6  
Author: Wu, Ying
Volume: Volume 6
Language: English
Subject: Journals, Science, Biology
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, PLoS Biology
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Publisher: Plos

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Wu, Y. (n.d.). Plos Biology : Phase Coupling of a Circadian Neuropeptide with Rest, Volume 6. Retrieved from http://netlibrary.net/


Description
Description : Drosophila clock neurons are self-sustaining cellular oscillators that rely on negative transcriptional feedback to keep circadian time. Proper regulation of organismal rhythms of physiology and behavior requires coordination of the oscillations of individual clock neurons within the circadian control network. Over the last decade, it has become clear that a key mechanism for intercellular communication in the circadian network is signaling between a subset of clock neurons that secrete the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) and clock neurons that possess its G proteincoupled receptor (PDFR). Furthermore, the specific hypothesis has been proposed that PDF-secreting clock neurons entrain the phase of organismal rhythms, and the cellular oscillations of other clock neurons, via the temporal patterning of secreted PDF signals. In order to test this hypothesis, we have devised a novel technique for altering the phase relationship between circadian transcriptional feedback oscillation and PDF secretion by using an ion channel– directed spider toxin to modify voltage-gated Naþ channel inactivation in vivo. This technique relies on the previously reported ‘‘tethered-toxin’’ technology for cell-autonomous modulation of ionic conductances via heterologous expression of subtype-specific peptide ion channel toxins as chimeric fusion proteins tethered to the plasma membrane with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. We demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, the utility of the tethered-toxin technology in a transgenic animal, validating four different tethered spider toxin ion channel modifiers for use in Drosophila. Focusing on one of these toxins, we show that GPI-tethered Australian funnelweb spider toxin d-ACTX-Hv1a inhibits Drosophila para voltage-gated Naþ channel inactivation when coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes. Transgenic expression of membrane-tethered d-ACTX-Hv1a in vivo in the PDF-secreting subset of clock neurons induces rhythmic action potential bursts and depolarized plateau potentials. These in vitro and in vivo electrophysiological effects of membrane-tethered d-ACTX-Hv1a are consistent with the effects of soluble d-ACTX-Hv1a purified from venom on Naþ channel physiological and biophysical properties in cockroach neurons. Membranetethered d-ACTX-Hv1a expression in the PDF-secreting subset of clock neurons induces an approximately 4-h phase advance of the rhythm of PDF accumulation in their terminals relative to both the phase of the day:night cycle and the phase of the circadian transcriptional feedback loops. As a consequence, the morning anticipatory peak of locomotor activity preceding dawn, which has been shown to be driven by the clocks of the PDF-secreting subset of clock neurons, phase advances coordinately with the phase of the PDF rhythm of the PDF-secreting clock neurons, rather than maintaining its phase relationship with the day:night cycle and circadian transcriptional feedback loops. These results (1) validate the tethered-toxin technology for cell-autonomous modulation of ion channel biophysical properties in vivo in transgenic Drosophila, (2) demonstrate that the kinetics of para Naþ channel inactivation is a key parameter for determining the phase relationship between circadian transcriptional feedback oscillation and PDF secretion, and (3) provide experimental support for the hypothesis that PDF-secreting clock neurons entrain the phase of organismal rhythms via the temporal patterning of secreted PDF signals.

 

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