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Plos One : Rhesus MacAque Theta Defensins Suppress Inflammatory Cytokines and Enhance Survival in Mouse Models of Bacteremic Sepsis, Volume 7

By Zimmer, Jacques

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Book Id: WPLBN0003959451
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Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Plos One : Rhesus MacAque Theta Defensins Suppress Inflammatory Cytokines and Enhance Survival in Mouse Models of Bacteremic Sepsis, Volume 7  
Author: Zimmer, Jacques
Volume: Volume 7
Language: English
Subject: Journals, Science, Medical Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection
Historic
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Publisher: Plos

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Zimmer, J. (n.d.). Plos One : Rhesus MacAque Theta Defensins Suppress Inflammatory Cytokines and Enhance Survival in Mouse Models of Bacteremic Sepsis, Volume 7. Retrieved from http://netlibrary.net/


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Description : Theta-defensins (h-defensins) are macrocyclic antimicrobial peptides expressed in leukocytes of Old World monkeys. The peptides are broad spectrum microbicides in vitro and numerous h-defensin isoforms have been identified in granulocytes of rhesus macaques and Olive baboons. Several mammalian a- and b-defensins, genetically related to h-defensins, have proinflammatory and immune-activating properties that bridge innate and acquired immunity. In the current study we analyzed the immunoregulatory properties of rhesus h-defensins 1–5 (RTDs 1–5). RTD-1, the most abundant h-defensin in macaques, reduced the levels of TNF, IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-6, and IL-8 secreted by blood leukocytes stimulated by several TLR agonists. RTDs 1–5 suppressed levels of soluble TNF released by bacteria- or LPS-stimulated blood leukocytes and THP-1 monocytes. Despite their highly conserved conformation and amino acid sequences, the anti-TNF activities of RTDs 1–5 varied by as much as 10-fold. Systemically administered RTD-1 was non-toxic for BALB/c mice, and escalating intravenous doses were well tolerated and non-immunogenic in adult chimpanzees. The peptide was highly stable in serum and plasma. Single dose administration of RTD-1 at 5 mg/kg significantly improved survival of BALB/c mice with E. coli peritonitis and cecal ligation-and-puncture induced polymicrobial sepsis. Peptide treatment reduced serum levels of several inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in bacteremic animals. Collectively, these results indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of hdefensins in vitro and in vivo are mediated by the suppression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines and blockade of TNF release may be a primary effect.

 

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